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A varactor-based fully reconfigurable microstrip bandpass-to-bandpass-with-embedded-stopband filter is presented in this paper. This filter offers wide center frequency and bandwidth tuning flexibility under both bandpass mode and bandpass-with-embedded-stopband mode. The entire tuning ability is based on multiple mode resonator theory and external quality factor tuning structure for bandpass mode and the introduction of transmission zeros (TZs) for bandpass-with-embedded-stopband mode. Under the bandpass mode, the center frequency tuning range is 0.96–1.45 GHz and the bandwidth can be tuned from 0.09 to 1.41 GHz with a fixed center frequency at 1.22 GHz. Under bandpass-with-embedded-stopband mode, the center frequency and bandwidth can be tuned from 0.94 to 1.61 GHz and 0.2–0.33 GHz, respectively. Good agreements are shown between simulated and measured results.
Rabbits play an important role in people’s lives due to their high nutritional value and high-quality hair that can be used as raw material for textiles. Furthermore, rabbits are an important animal model for human disease, as genome-edited animals are particularly valuable for studying gene functions and pathogenesis. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is an important technique for producing genome-edited animals and it has great value in saving endangered species and in clone stem cell therapy. However, the low efficiency of SCNT limits its application, with the selection of suitable rabbit oocytes being crucial to its success. In the present study, we collected oocytes from ovarian follicles and stained them with 26 μM brilliant cresyl blue (BCB). We then matured the oocytes in vitro and used them for SCNT. Comparison of the BCB-positive oocytes with BCB-negative oocytes and the control group showed that the BCB-positive group had a significantly higher maturation rate (81.4% vs. 48.9% and 65.3% for the negative and control groups, respectively), cleavage rate (86.6% vs. 67.9% and 77.9%), blastocyst rate (30.5% vs. 12.8% and 19.6%), total number of blastocysts (90±7.5 vs. 65.3±6.3 and 67.5±5.7), and inner cell mass (ICM)/ trophectoderm (TE) index (42.3±4.2 vs. 30.2±2.1 and 33.9±5.1) (P<0.05). The BCB-positive group had a significantly lower apoptosis index (2.1±0.6 vs. 8.2±0.9 and 6.7±1.1 for the negative and control groups, respectively) (P<0.05). These findings demonstrate that BCB-positive oocytes have a higher maturation ability and developmental competence in vitro, indicating that BCB staining is a reliable method for selecting oocytes to enhance the efficiency of SCNT.
In January 2016, static GPS measurements were carried out in a 30 × 30 km2 area centered around Kunlun station at Dome Argus (Dome A), East Antarctica, to acquire high-precision 3-D geodetic coordinates at 49 sites. By comparing the coordinates with previous GPS measurements in 2008 and 2013 at the same sites, we constructed a detailed and long-term record of the ice-surface velocity field, 2008–2016, around Dome A. During this time span, the estimated ice-surface velocity ranges from 0.8 ± 0.3 to 28.7 ± 1.6 cm a−1, with a mean of 10.4 ± 0.3 cm a−1. From 2013 to 2016, the surface elevation of most Dome A areas exhibits a rising trend, and the maximum increase of snow surface elevation is 84.8 cm. The mean snow surface elevation change rate at Dome A is estimated to be 6.6 ± 0.7 cm a−1. The difference of 1.0 cm a−1 between the snow surface change rate derived from GPS and pole-height change rate from surface mass balance is suspected to be a result of a combination of firn densification and basal melt under Dome A.
The hot deformation behavior of Ti–6Al–4V alloy with starting fully lamellar microstructure was investigated by conducting isothermal hot compression tests at the temperature of 700–1000 °C and strain rate of 0.001–10 s−1. The deformation activation energy is calculated to be 342 kJ/mol at temperatures from 750 to 850 °C, whereas the higher apparent activation energy of 610 kJ/mol is obtained at a high temperature regime of 900–1000 °C. The relationship between the dynamic softening behavior and deformation parameters was analyzed by power dissipation efficiency η, which shows an increasing trend as the deformation temperature increases and strain rate decreases, respectively. Processing maps were constructed. The instability flow is dominated by the presence of adiabatic shear bands, and the dynamic softening is mainly caused by a combination effect of dynamic recrystallization and dynamic recovery. Moreover, straining is found to have a positive effect on lowering the phase transformation temperature.
Astrophysical collisionless shocks are amazing phenomena in space and astrophysical plasmas, where supersonic flows generate electromagnetic fields through instabilities and particles can be accelerated to high energy cosmic rays. Until now, understanding these micro-processes is still a challenge despite rich astrophysical observation data have been obtained. Laboratory astrophysics, a new route to study the astrophysics, allows us to investigate them at similar extreme physical conditions in laboratory. Here we will review the recent progress of the collisionless shock experiments performed at SG-II laser facility in China. The evolution of the electrostatic shocks and Weibel-type/filamentation instabilities are observed. Inspired by the configurations of the counter-streaming plasma flows, we also carry out a novel plasma collider to generate energetic neutrons relevant to the astrophysical nuclear reactions.
Using repeat GPS measurements during 2005–16, we calculated and updated two-dimensional high-resolution decadal ice surface velocity estimates along the traverse route from Zhongshan Station to and around Dome Argus, East Antarctica. Along the 71 sites of the transect, the magnitudes of ice velocity increased from near 0 in Dome Argus to 1, 10 and ~100 m a−1 at the sites DT416, DT333 and LT980, respectively. The comparison between GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) derived results agree well when the magnitude of the ice surface velocities is faster than 5 m a−1, and disagree for slower flow velocities. A scale value 1.15 and 0.12 can be applied to InSAR derived results over this region with ice surface velocity larger and <5 m a−1, respectively. We attributed the cause of the discrepancy to the insensitivity of InSAR to the magnitude of low ice surface velocities, thus confirming the importance of GPS fieldwork-based ground truth high-resolution ice velocity estimates to constrain ice-sheet dynamics.
SCN5A encodes sodium-channel α-subunit Nav1.5. The mutations of SCN5A can lead to hereditary cardiac arrhythmias such as the long-QT syndrome type 3 and Brugada syndrome. Here we sought to identify novel mutations in a family with arrhythmia.
Genomic DNA was isolated from blood of the proband, who was diagnosed with atrial flutter. Illumina Hiseq 2000 whole-exome sequencing was performed and an arrhythmia-related gene-filtering strategy was used to analyse the pathogenic genes. Sanger sequencing was applied to verify the mutation co-segregated in the family.
Results and conclusions
A novel missense mutation in SCN5A (C335R) was identified, and this mutation co-segregated within the affected family members. This missense mutation was predicted to result in amplitude reduction in peak Na+ current, further leading to channel protein dysfunction. Our study expands the spectrum of SCN5A mutations and contributes to genetic counselling of families with arrhythmia.
Stakes at 2 km intervals were installed in January 1997 and remeasured in February 1998, January 1999, January 2005 and during the 2007/08 austral summer along a 1248 km traverse route from Zhongshan station to Dome A, East Antarctica. Based on topographical parameters, meteorological features and the records of ∼650 stakes and six stake arrays, the route is divided into five zones. We find that the snow accumulation rate decreases with increasing altitude as one progresses inland, except in the zone 800–1128 km from the coast, where the average annual accumulation rate is higher than in the zone 524–800 km from the coast. The Dome A zone (1128–1248 km) has the lowest accumulation rate (35 kg m−2 a−1, 2005–08) due to having the highest elevation and being furthest from the coast. The surface mass balance in the region 202–1128 km from the coast exhibits no temporal change from 1999–2005 to 2005–08, but there is a change in the accumulation distribution. The zone from 202 to 524 km shows a decrease in surface mass balance from 84 kg m−2 a−1 in 1999–2005 to 67 kg m−2 a−1 in 2005–08, while the zone between 800 and 1128 km shows an increase from 67 kg m−2 a−1 in 1999–2005 to 75 kg m−2 a−1 in 2005–08.
Knowledge of the surface topography, velocity field and strain field at an ice-core site is critical to the accurate interpretation of ice-core records. At Dome Argus (Dome A), where a Chinese deep ice-core drilling project is being carried out, we have produced an accurate surface digital elevation model from GPS measurements in January 2013 at 47 sites. We identify two peaks at Dome A, with the northern peak ~7 cm higher than the southern peak. Repeat GPS measurements at 12 sites in 2008 and 2013 provide a surface velocity field around the dome. The surface velocity ranges from 3.1±2.6 to 29.4±1.2 cm a–1, with a mean of 11.1 ~2.4 cm a–1. The surface flow directions are near perpendicular to the surface elevation contours. Velocities from GPS are lower than derived from satellite radar interferometry (InSAR). From GPS velocities, the accuracy of velocity from the existing InSAR velocity field is determined, resulting in a standard deviation of 0.570 m a–1 in speed and 117.5º in direction. This result is consistent with the reported accuracy of InSAR, showing the value of in situ GPS measurements for assessing and correcting remote-sensing results. A surface strain field for the drilling site over Dome A is calculated from 24 strain triangles, showing north–south extension, east– west compression and vertical layer thinning.
Catastrophic failure is an unsolved problem existing in the most photometric redshift estimation approaches for a long history. In this study, we propose a novel approach by integration of k-nearest-neighbor (KNN) and support vector machine (SVM) methods together. Experiments based on the quasar sample from SDSS show that the fusion approach can significantly mitigate catastrophic failure and improve the accuracy of photometric redshift estimation.
Electroactive polymers (EAPs) are capable of converting energy in the form of electric charge and voltage to mechanical force and movement and vice versa. Several electroactive polymer actuator materials whose responses are controlled by external electric fields, e.g. poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) based fluoroterpolymers, have generated considerable interest for use in applications such as artificial muscles, sensors, parasitic energy capture, integrated bio-microelectromechanical systems (BioMEMS) and microfluidic devices due to their high electric-field induced strain, high elastic modulus, high electromechanical coupling and high frequency operation, etc. Scaling the EAP down into microsystems is one of the promising trends of EAP actuators and sensors especially for biomedical engineering. The combination of micro-optics and integrated BioMEMS, referred to as bio-micro-opto-electromechanical systems (BioMOEMS), makes a new opportunity for innovation in the EAP field. We present an approach to the fabrication of low-cost, large-stroke deformable micromirrors based on high performance electroactive polymer film microactuator arrays. Integrated Optic-BioMEMS based on electroactive polymer deformable micromirror (EAPDM) technology provide potential applications in biomedical optics such as ophthalmology (retinal imaging and vision care) and cancer detection and treatment.
To increase our understanding of the relationships of trunk fat mass (FMtrunk) and four anthropometric indices in Chinese males, 1090 males aged 20–40 years were randomly recruited from the city of Changsha, China. Waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured using standardized equipment, and three other anthropometric indices of BMI, waist:hip ratio (WHR) and conicity index (CoI) were calculated using weight, height, HC and WC. FMtrunk (in kg) was measured using a Hologic QDR 4500 W dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner. There was an increasing trend of FMtrunk, %FMtrunk (percentage of FMtrunk) and BMI, WC, WHR, CoI in successively older age groups (e.g. the mean FMtrunk values were 4·63 (sd 2·58), 5·39 (sd 2·74), 5·93 (sd 2·82), 6·57 (sd 2·94) in four 5-year age groups, respectively). FMtrunk and %FMtrunk were significantly correlated with four anthropometric indices with the Pearson's correlation coefficients ranging from 0·25 to 0·86. Principal component analysis was performed to form three principal components that interpreted over 99·5% of the total variation of four related anthropometric indices in all age groups, with over 65% of the total variation accounted by principal component 1. Multiple regression analyses showed that three principal components explained a greater variance (R2 70·0–80·1%) in FMtrunk than did BMI or WC alone (R2 57·8–74·1%). The present results suggest that there is an increasing trend of FMtrunk and four anthropometric indices in successively older age groups; that age has important effects on the relationships of FMtrunk and studied anthropometric indices; and that the accuracy of predicting FMtrunk using four anthropometric indices is higher than using BMI or WC alone.
Two pairs of nested primers were derived from the 5′ flanking sequence of the bovine SRY gene to serve as male-specific sexing primers, which were used for PCR-based sex determination of bovine embryos in combination with casein protein gene primers as internal control. At the same time, methods of DNA extraction from bovine embryo cells were established and the sensitivity of nested PCR and normal PCR was studied for developing a technique of sex determination of bovine embryos adapted for practical use. Results showed that the primers used in the study were male-specific and all primers were bovine-specific. Boiling and freeze–thawing were used for DNA extraction from embryo cells. Amplification products were obtained with only 10 cells by nested PCR, so this system was used for the sex determination of bovine embryos. The sex of 10 Holstein cow embryos was identified and the results were confirmed upon birth of the calves.
An optically polished x-cut KTiOPO4 crystal of size 22×6×1.5mm3 was implanted with 2.8-MeV He ions to a dose of 1.5 × 1016 ions/cm2 at room temperature to form a waveguide. The prism coupling method was used to measure the modes and the fiber probe technique was used to measure the attenuation in the KTiOPO4 waveguide. The refractive index profile, nz, in the KTiOPO4 waveguide was given based on the procedure by Chandler and Lama [P.J. Chandler and F.L. Lama, Optica Acta 33, 123 (1986)]. The waveguide attenuation measured was 2.57 dB/cm for m = 1 mode. After annealing at 260 °C for 30 min, there was no obvious change in the KTiOPO4 waveguide attenuation.
X-cut potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO4 or KTP) was implanted by multienergy MeV He+ implantation with a total dose of 2 × 1016 ions/cm2 at liquid nitrogen temperature. The energy and dose used are as follows: 3.3 MeV and 2 × 1015 ions/cm2, 3.2 MeV and 4 × 1015 ions/cm2, 3.1 MeV and 4 × 1015 ions/cm2, and 3.0 MeV and 1.0 × 1016 ions/cm2 to reduce tunneling effect. The 22 dark modes were measured by the isosceles prism coupling method. The 15 bright modes were observed after 250 °C, 60 min annealing. The result shows that the waveguide formation of KTiOPO4 implanted by MeV He+ is not strongly dependent on the cut direction, which is different from the waveguide formation of KTiOPO4 by ion exchange process.
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