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Social cognition has not previously been assessed in treatment-naive patients with chronic schizophrenia, in patients over 60 years of age, or in patients with less than 5 years of schooling.
We revised a commonly used measure of social cognition, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), by expanding the instructions, using both self-completion and interviewer-completion versions (for illiterate respondents), and classifying each test administration as ‘successfully completed’ or ‘incomplete’. The revised instrument (RMET-CV-R) was administered to 233 treatment-naive patients with chronic schizophrenia (UT), 154 treated controls with chronic schizophrenia (TC), and 259 healthy controls (HC) from rural communities in China.
In bivariate and multivariate analyses, successful completion rates and RMET-CV-R scores (percent correct judgments about emotion exhibited in 70 presented slides) were highest in HC, intermediate in TC, and lowest in UT (adjusted completion rates, 97.0, 72.4, and 49.9%, respectively; adjusted RMET-CV-R scores, 45.4, 38.5, and 34.6%, respectively; all p < 0.02). Stratified analyses by the method of administration (self-completed v. interviewer-completed) and by education and age (‘educated-younger’ v. ‘undereducated-older’) show the same relationship between groups (i.e. NC>TC>UT), though not all differences remain statistically significant.
We find poorer social cognition in treatment-naive than in treated patients with chronic schizophrenia. The discriminant validity of RMET-CV-R in undereducated, older patients demonstrates the feasibility of administering revised versions of RMET to patients who may otherwise be considered ineligible due to education or age by changing the method of test administration and carefully assessing respondents' ability to complete the task successfully.
In the present study, we use direct numerical simulation to investigate the density-driven convection in a two-dimensional anisotropic heterogeneous porous media associated with significant laminated formation. At first, the heterogeneous porous media are randomly generated to represent laminated structure, in which the horizontal correlation length of permeability field is much longer than the vertical counterpart. Then, a highly accurate pseudo-spectral method and compact finite difference scheme with higher order of accuracy are employed to numerically reproduce the convection flow in the laminated porous media. The results show that the laminated structures restrict interactions among the downward plumes of heavier fluid. The plumes tend to descend more straightly in a laminated porous medium associated with a slower growth rate. As a result, the laminated distribution of permeability is considered having an inhibiting effect on the convection flow.
We demonstrate in this paper the shape-controlled synthesis of α-Fe2O3 rhombohedra anchored graphene nanocomposites through a simple hydrothermal strategy by adopting inorganic species in the synthesis system. TEM investigations reveal that the rhombohedra with an average diameter of 80 nm is formed through oriented attachment of primary nanocrystals assisted by Ostwald ripening, and CH3COONa inorganic surfactant played an important role in control over the final morphology of the products. As high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries, the obtained Fe2O3 rhombohedra/graphene composite exhibits the first reversible capacity of 905.3 mAh g−1, and high capacity retention of 85.7% after 50 cycles. These values are much higher than those of bare Fe2O3 and Fe2O3 particle/graphene composites, indicating its excellent electrochemical stability. These results give us a guideline for the study of the morphology-dependent properties of functional oxide materials as well as further applications for magnetic materials, lithium-ion batteries, and gas sensors.
To assess correlations between cruciferous vegetable intake and urinary isothiocyanate (ITC) level, in addition to glutathione S-transferase (GST) genotypes and other individual factors.
The study included cohort participants whose urinary ITC levels had been previously ascertained. Urinary ITC was assessed using HPLC. Usual dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables was assessed using a validated FFQ and total dietary ITC intake was calculated. Recent cruciferous vegetable intake was determined. GST genotypes were assessed using duplex real-time quantitative PCR assays. Spearman correlations were calculated between the covariates and urinary ITC levels and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the mean urinary ITC excretion according to GST genotype.
Urban city in China.
The study included 3589 women and 1015 men from the Shanghai Women’s and Men’s Health Studies.
Median urinary ITC level was 1·61 nmol/mg creatinine. Self-reported usual cruciferous vegetable intake was weakly correlated with urinary ITC level (rs=0·1149; P<0·0001), while self-reported recent intake was more strongly correlated with urinary ITC (rs=0·2591; P<0·0001). Overall, the GST genotypes were not associated with urinary ITC level, but significant differences according to genotype were observed among current smokers and participants who provided an afternoon urine sample. Other factors, including previous gastrectomy or gastritis, were also related to urinary ITC level.
The study suggests that urinary secretion of ITC may provide additional information on cruciferous vegetable intake and that GST genotypes are related to urinary ITC level only in some subgroups.
Little is known about the association of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and blood pressure (BP) parameters, including systolic and diastolic BP, pulse pressure (PP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and hypertension in non-Western populations that have not yet been exposed to foods fortified with vitamins and seldom use vitamin D supplements. A cross-sectional analysis of plasma 25(OH)D levels in association with BP measures was performed for 1460 participants (1055 women and 405 men, aged 40–74 years) of two large cohort studies in Shanghai. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions were conducted. Overall, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 55·8 % using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, USA criteria and 29·9 % using WHO criteria. The median plasma 25(OH)D level in the population was 38·0 nmol/l for men and 33·6 nmol/l for women (P < 0·01) among participants who were not on antihypertensive drugs. Among men, BP parameters (systolic BP, diastolic BP and MAP) were significantly and inversely associated with higher quintiles of 25(OH)D compared with the lowest quintile (Ptrend < 0·05 for all). Vitamin D non-deficient status (WHO criteria) was inversely associated with hypertension (ORadjusted = 0·29; 95 % CI 0·10, 0·82). An inverse association was also found between hypertension and the highest quintile of 25(OH)D (ORadjusted = 0·16; 95 % CI 0·04, 0·65 for ≥ 50·6 nmol/l; Ptrend = 0·02). Among women, no significant associations were found for BP parameters and hypertension. The present study shows that vitamin D deficiency is common among adults in urban China. Circulating 25(OH)D levels were inversely related to the levels of individual BP parameters and hypertension among middle-aged and elderly men but not among women. More research is needed to investigate the potential sex differential associations.
The prevalence of hypertension has increased over the past decade in many developed and developing countries, including China. This increase may be associated with changes in lifestyle, including dietary patterns. We evaluated the association of dietary patterns with blood pressure (BP) by using data from a large, population-based cohort study of middle-aged and elderly Chinese men, the Shanghai Men's Health Study. The present cross-sectional analysis includes 39 252 men who reported no prior history of hypertension, diabetes, CHD, or stroke nor use of antihypertensive drugs at study enrolment. Three dietary patterns, ‘vegetable’, ‘fruit and milk’ and ‘meat’, were derived using factor analysis. The fruit and milk diet was inversely associated with both systolic and diastolic BP (Ptrend < 0·001). The adjusted mean systolic BP was 2·9 mmHg lower (95 % CI − 3·4, − 2·4), and diastolic BP was 1·7 mmHg lower (95 % CI − 2·0, − 1·4) for men in the highest quintile of the ‘fruit and milk’ pattern compared with men in the lowest quintile. This inverse association was more evident among heavy drinkers; the highest quintile of the ‘fruit and milk’ pattern was associated with a 4·1 mmHg reduction in systolic BP v. a 2·0 mmHg reduction among non-drinkers (Pinteraction = 0·003) compared to the lowest quintile. The corresponding reductions in diastolic BP were 2·0 v. 1·3 mmHg (Pinteraction = 0·011). The ‘fruit and milk’ pattern was associated with a lower prevalence of both pre-hypertension and hypertension, and the associations appeared to be stronger among drinkers. Results of the present study suggest an important role for diet in the prevention of hypertension.
Dietary patterns, which reflect the complexity of food preference, lifestyle and socio-economic status, may play a major role in health and longevity. Understanding dietary patterns and their correlates is important to the research of diet and health relationships. In the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS) a total of 61 582 men aged 40–74 were recruited between 2002 and 2006. Their food intake over the previous year was collected using a validated FFQ. Study participants (75·6 %) reported little or no change in meat and vegetable intake in the 5 years prior to recruitment. Using the baseline data of the SMHS, we assessed dietary patterns, as well as their relationship with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors and with prevalence of some chronic diseases. Three major dietary patterns, fruit-, vegetable- and meat-based diets, were identified in our population. Consumption of the fruit diet appeared to be more common among men who were older and more physically active, had higher income, and lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), while this diet was less common among manual labourers. The meat- or vegetable-based diets were less common among elderly men and more common among men with higher WHR. Dietary patterns appeared to be associated with the presence of health conditions. In general, subjects with a chronic disease were more likely to have the vegetable-based diet and less likely to have the fruit- or meat-based diets. Future studies of diet and health in this population will need to carefully take into account these potential confounders.
We evaluated the validity and reproducibility of the FFQ used in the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS). The study included 195 randomly selected participants of the SMHS who completed one FFQ at baseline, twelve 24-hour dietary recalls (24-HDR) (once a month for twelve consecutive months) and a second FFQ at the end of the study. The FFQ accounted for 88·78 % of the foods recorded in the 24-HDR surveys. The validity of the FFQ was evaluated by comparing nutrient and food group intake levels from the second FFQ and the multiple 24-HDR. Correlation coefficients ranged from 0·38 to 0·64 for macronutrients, 0·33 to 0·58 for micronutrients and 0·35 to 0·72 for food groups. Misclassification to opposite quartiles for nutrients and food groups was rare, ranging from 1·5 to 7·7 %, while exact agreement rates were between 31·8 and 53·3 %. The reliability of the FFQ was assessed by comparing the intake levels from the two FFQ. Correlation coefficients were 0·39 to 0·53 for macronutrients, 0·38 to 0·52 for micronutrients and 0·39 to 0·64 for food groups. Exact agreement rates for quartile distribution were between 31·8 and 49·2 %, while misclassification to opposite quartiles was between 1·5 and 6·2 %. These data indicate that the SMHS FFQ can reasonably categorise usual intake of nutrients and food groups among men living in urban Shanghai.
Random errors, from any source, will attenuate epidemiological risk estimates. Before we launched the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS), a large population-based cohort study investigating the diet–cancer association among Chinese men, a dietary calibration study was conducted among 96 men aged 40–75 years (mean age 56.5 years), with biweekly 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) implemented over a 1-year period. Data from this study were analysed to evaluate the nature and magnitude of variances for intake of 26 nutrients among SMHS participants, to compare variance ratios of 26 nutrients among Chinese men and women and individuals in other studies, and to estimate the number of 24HDRs required for future dietary calibration studies in similar populations.
Ninety-six healthy, free-living men in Shanghai were administered biweekly 24HDR interviews 24 times over a 1-year period. To assess between-individual and within-individual contributions to variance, a mixed effects model was fitted and ratios of within-individual to between-individual dietary intake variances were computed.
In agreement with reports from studies conducted in the USA and many other countries, we found that within-individual variances were usually larger than between-individual variances in dietary intake for all nutrients. The sum of all other variation (e.g. weekday and weekend, seasonal, interviewer) accounted for less than 5% of total variation. Ratios of within- to between-individual variances (for log-transformed data) ranged from 1.25 for carbohydrate intake to near 8 for δ-tocopherol intake.
The results of this study suggest that among middle-aged and elderly Chinese men in Shanghai, within- and between-individual variation account for more than 95% of the total variation for 26 nutrients. Further dietary validation studies in the same population could be adequately carried out with only 12 days of dietary recalls, if 100 participants were enrolled.
Giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) and giant stress-impedence (GSI) effects were realized in multilayered FeSiB/Cu/FeSiB films with a meander structure by magnetron sputtering on thin glass substrates. The GMI and GSI effects were studied in the frequency range of 1–40 MHz for the multilayered FeSiB/Cu/FeSiB films. Experimental results show that a large negative GMI ratio of –23% is obtained at Ha=12 kA/m for a frequency of 20 MHz. The GSI ratio is –20% for a frequency of 1 MHz with the deflection of 150μm of the multilayered FeSiBsCu/FeSiB films. The GSI effect is attractive for stress or pressure sensor applications.
Chemical bath deposition (CBD) techniques for the growth of CdS polycrystalline thin films are now well developed. However, there usually appear different structures, grain sizes and energy gaps in CdS polycrystalline films by CBD, which implies that the influence of growth process on the structures and properties of CBD CdS thin films must be considered. In this paper, the optical, compositional and structural properties of CBD CdS thin films in the reaction process have been studied by XRD, AFM, XPS and optical transmission spectra measurements. The results can be explained using atomic mechanism and lattice transition in the CdS thin films.
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