In Part III, the contributors provide an outline of some of the key questions on the legitimacy of children as rights bearers and the biases of Western versus Non-western concepts of children's rights that were also raised in Introduction of this collection. Through an analysis of religious violence in India, Cecilia Jacob highlights that children's protection and agency in peace efforts are necessary to shape any comprehensive understanding of rights. Worldwide, minors, under the age of five have one of the highest conflict related mortality rates of any age group. Children, caught up in armed conflicts, especially genocidal conflicts are much more likely to be malnourished. Kazi Fahmida Farzana, in her chapter on the Rohingya refugee children living in camps in Bangladesh, argues that global inequality and the North-South divides mean that significant challenges remain in including children in development policies and ensuring children's access to education, health and basic rights. Reflecting on professional experience with the United Nations Children's Fund in Nepal and elsewhere, Anita Knudsen and Michelle Godwin argue that without genuine commitment from all parties involved in an armed conflict and a comprehensive and holistic approach, the rights of the child cannot be guaranteed. Children, intertwined with their identities – racial, linguistic, religious, regional, ethnic, many of which are also overlapping – are caught between local and global conflicts.
In Chapter 8, Children Affected by Political Violence in India: Human Rights, Politics, and Protection,Cecilia Jacob examines the interrelationship between children's rights and their security in the case of religious violence in India. In Orissa in 2008, a wave of religious violence targeted against Christians by Hindu extremists led to the killing of more than 40 people, and the displacement of thousands. Targeted in the violence were many schools, school buses, orphanages, child care centres, churches, homes, communities, and individual children themselves. Children were therefore central to the violence and displacement crisis in Orissa. Events in Orissa mirrored many of the features of the 2002 Gujarat pogrom in which Muslim children were killed alongside their parents, foetuses destroyed, and Hindu children implicated in meting out communal violence against Muslims.