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The lower-middle Hetang Formation (Cambrian Stage 2–3) deposited in slope-basinal facies in South China is well known for its preservation of the earliest articulated sponge fossils, providing an important taphonomic window into the Cambrian Explosion. However, the Hetang Formation also hosts a number of problematic animal fossils that have not been systematically described. This omission results in an incomplete picture of the Hetang biota and limits its contribution to the understanding of the early evolution of animals. Here we describe a new animal taxon, Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao, new genus new species, from the middle Hetang Formation in the Lantian area of southern Anhui Province, South China. Specimens are preserved as carbonaceous compressions, although some are secondarily mineralized. A comprehensive analysis using reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and micro-CT reveals that the new species is characterized by a spheroidal to fusoidal truss-like structure consisting of rafter-like crossbars, some of which are secondarily baritized and may have been internally hollow. Some specimens have aperture-like structures that are broadly similar to oscula of sponges, whereas others show evidence of a medial split reminiscent of gaping carapaces. While the phylogenetic affinity of Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao, n. gen. n. sp. remains problematic, we propose that it may represent carapaces of bivalved arthropods or more likely sponges in early life stages. Along with other problematic metazoan fossils such as hyolithids and sphenothallids, Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao, n. gen. n. sp. adds to the diversity of the sponge-dominated Hetang biota in an early Cambrian deepwater slope-basinal environment.
Orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM) system is a special cognitive radio system that is widely used in military and civilian applications. As a crucial aspect of spectrum monitoring and electronic countermeasures reconnaissance, it is important to identify the OFDM signal. An identification method based on fractal box dimension and pseudo-inverse spectrum (PIS) has been proposed in this paper for the recognition problem of OFDM signal under multipath channel. Firstly, by theoretically analyzing the fractal box dimension of OFDM signal and single carrier (SC) signal, it can be concluded that the fractal box dimension of OFDM signal and SC signal has obvious differences. Thus, the fractal box dimension of the two types of signal is used to discriminate OFDM signal and SC signal. Then, the PIS of an OFDM signal is constructed according to the characteristics of the OFDM signal. Through theoretical analysis and the experimental simulation, it illustrates that the classification feature could be extracted by detecting the periodical peak of the PIS of OFDM signal and used for identifying OFDM signal in the Gaussian noise. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has better performance than the conventional algorithm based on autocorrelation.
Invasive smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora Loisel) eradication is important for the health of many coastal ecosystems. An integrated regime of continuous submergence after clear mowing, with three interval levels between mowing and submergence (5, 10, and 15 d) and three submergence depths (20, 30, and 50 cm), was implemented in cofferdams enclosing invader populations along a Chinese coast. In July of the following year, after the roots of mowed S. alterniflora had been submerged for 12 mo, some ramets grew under the regime with an interval of 15 d and the regime with a submergence depth of 20 cm, but no ramets occurred under the regimes with submergence depths of 30 or 50 cm and intervals of 5 or 10 d. Four crab species were documented: Helice tridens tientsinensis Rathbun, Sesarma dehaani H. Milne-Edwards, Ocypode stimpsoni Ortmann, and Chiromantes haematocheir de Haan. Biomass and abundance values of crab species in the cofferdams were similar to those in the mudflats but different from those in smooth cordgrass populations. Thus, the treatment of submergence after mowing, which was implemented in the cofferdams, can control S. alterniflora and provide a mudflat-like habitat that promotes crab recovery if this treatment uses the proper combination of submergence depth and interval between mowing and submergence.
A type of
ultra-broadband antireflective coating has been developed using modified low refractive silica and high refractive silica layers by a sol–gel dip coating method for amplifier blast shields of the Shen Guang II high power laser facility (SG-II facility). Deposition of the first layer (high refractive index silica) involves baking at
in the post-treatment step. The second layer (low refractive index,
) uses low refractive index silica sol modified by acid catalysis. Thermal baking at temperatures no less than
for 60 min offers chemical stability, ethanol scratch resistance, and resistance to washing with water. The average residual reflection of dual-side-coated fused silica glass was less than 1% in the spectral range from 450 to 950 nm. Transmission gain has been evaluated by taking into account angular light, and the results show that the transmission gain increases with increasing light incidence. Even at
, the transmission spectrum of the broadband antireflective coating effectively covered the main absorption peak of Nd:glass.
In this paper, we present a preconditioned positive-definite and skew-Hermitian splitting (PPSS) iteration method for continuous Sylvester equations AX + XB = C with positive definite/semi-definite matrices. The analysis shows that the PPSS iteration method will converge under certain assumptions. An inexact variant of the PPSS iteration method (IPPSS) has been presented and the analysis of its convergence property in detail has been discussed. Numerical results show that this new method is more efficient and robust than the existing ones.
Apixaban (Eliquis®) is a novel oral pyrazole-based direct FXa inhibitor. The title compound is an intermediate in the synthesis of the anticoagulant, Apixaban. X-ray powder diffraction data for the title compound, are reported [a = 9.511(5) Å, b = 18.539(2) Å, c = 5.645(3) Å, α = 90°, β = 101.813(1)°, γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 974.28 Å3, Z = 2, ρcal = 1.336 g cm−3, and space group P2]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P2 space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for thiamphenicol, C12H15Cl2NO5S, are reported [a = 17.346(3), b = 15.341(0), c = 5.790 (2) Å, α = β = γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 1540.8(3) Å3, Z = 4, and space group P212121]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P212121 space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
X-ray powder diffraction data for 1-(4-aminophenyl)-5,6-dihydro-3-(4-morpholinyl)-2(1H)-pyridinone, C15H19N3O2, are reported [a = 14.877(4) Å, b = 5.893(6) Å, c = 18.984(3) Å, α = 90°, β = 122.298(3)°, γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 1406.86 Å3, Z = 4, and space group P21/c]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21/c space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
X-ray powder diffraction data for 3-(4-Morpholinyl)-1-(4-nitrophenyl)-5,6-dihydro-2(1H)-pyridinone, C15H17N3O4, are reported [a = 7.112(1) Å, b = 33.360(2) Å, c = 6.265(1) Å, α = 90°, β = 94.037(1)°, γ = 90°, V = 1483.08 Å3, Z = 4, ρcal = 1.358 g cm−3 and space group P21]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21 space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
To assess correlations between cruciferous vegetable intake and urinary isothiocyanate (ITC) level, in addition to glutathione S-transferase (GST) genotypes and other individual factors.
The study included cohort participants whose urinary ITC levels had been previously ascertained. Urinary ITC was assessed using HPLC. Usual dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables was assessed using a validated FFQ and total dietary ITC intake was calculated. Recent cruciferous vegetable intake was determined. GST genotypes were assessed using duplex real-time quantitative PCR assays. Spearman correlations were calculated between the covariates and urinary ITC levels and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the mean urinary ITC excretion according to GST genotype.
Urban city in China.
The study included 3589 women and 1015 men from the Shanghai Women’s and Men’s Health Studies.
Median urinary ITC level was 1·61 nmol/mg creatinine. Self-reported usual cruciferous vegetable intake was weakly correlated with urinary ITC level (rs=0·1149; P<0·0001), while self-reported recent intake was more strongly correlated with urinary ITC (rs=0·2591; P<0·0001). Overall, the GST genotypes were not associated with urinary ITC level, but significant differences according to genotype were observed among current smokers and participants who provided an afternoon urine sample. Other factors, including previous gastrectomy or gastritis, were also related to urinary ITC level.
The study suggests that urinary secretion of ITC may provide additional information on cruciferous vegetable intake and that GST genotypes are related to urinary ITC level only in some subgroups.
Atomic layer deposition has attracted much attention recently in fabricating noble metal nanoparticles for a wide range of applications. We have explored synthesizing palladium nanoparticles via atomic layer deposition on self-assembled monolayers modified silicon substrate. Using alkyltrichlorosilanes as the passivating agents, our results show the method is capable of fabricating Pd nanoparticles with well controlled density and particle diameter on the modified silicon substrate.
In insect, fat body plays major roles in insect innate immunity. Phenoloxidase (PO) is an important component in insect innate immunity and is necessary for acclimatization. In our study, two prophenoloxidase (PPO) subunits were obtained from fat body of Catantops pinguis (Stål). The full-length cDNA sequence of one PPO (CpPPO1) consisted of 2347 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2187 bp encoding 728 amino acids, while the other subunit (CpPPO2) had a full length of 2445 bp, encoding 691 amino acids. Both the PPO gene products are predicted to possess all the structural features of other PPO members, including two putative tyrosinase copper-binding motifs with six highly conserved histidine residues and a thiolester-like motif. Tissue distribution analysis showed that both PPO mRNAs were abundantly expressed in the fat body among 11 tissues examined, and they were transiently up-regulated after Escherichia coli infection, consistent with them being immune-responsive genes. Total levels of CpPPO1 and CpPPO2 mRNA transcripts were much higher in first instar larvae and adults. A much higher transcript level of CpPPO1 was detected in several months, while there were extremely high mRNA expression levels of CpPPO2 in January, July, October, and December. The above results suggested that PPO from fat body might also bring significant function during the processes of development and acclimatization for C. pinguis.
We study the two-sided exit problem of a time-homogeneous diffusion process with tax payments of loss-carry-forward type and obtain explicit formulae for the Laplace transforms associated with the two-sided exit problem. The expected present value of tax payments until default, the two-sided exit probabilities, and, hence, the nondefault probability with the default threshold equal to the lower bound are solved as immediate corollaries. A sufficient and necessary condition for the tax identity in ruin theory is discovered.
A dual-band high-efficiency coaxial relativistic backward wave oscillator (CRBWO) with asymmetric resonant reflector is designed and presented in this paper. Improved sectioned coaxial slow wave structure (SWS) with stepwise variation of coupling impedance and phase velocity is employed, and the performance of the dual-band CRBWO is investigated by use of a 2.5-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code. When the diode voltage is 510 kV and beam current is 9.03 kA, an average microwave power of 1.0 GW with power conversion efficiency of 21.7% is obtained. Synchronously radiating dual-band frequencies of 8.1 GHz and 9.9 GHz are obtained, corresponding to C-band and X-band, respectively. A more clear and stable beating radiation microwave power with beating frequency of 1.8 GHz is acquired.
The estimation of GPS repeater jamming plays an important role in modern military applications. In this paper, based on the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method, a new approach for the estimation of GPS repeater jamming using Kalman filtering with coloured observation noise is proposed. The state equation and observation equation of the Kalman filter with the coloured observation noise are deduced and the generation process explained. The recursive formula for the Kalman filter used to iteratively filter for the MLE output is also derived. Experimental results show that the new design has a better performance than the MLE; hence it can be used for the precise estimation of repeater jamming signals under the condition that the carrier-to-noise density ratio is below 20 dB-Hz.
Ge nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous SiO2 film on Si matrix were prepared by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. Neutron transmutation doping (NTD) technique was used for doping Ge nanocrystals with As impurities. The microstructure, phase and photoluminescence of NTDed Ge nanocrystals were analyzed and compared with undoped Ge nanocrystals. A new photoluminescence peak related to As impurities was found. It is discovered that impurities are expelled from larger clusters resulted from Ge nanocrystal aggregation on the sample surface. To prevent nanocrystal aggregation and assure uniform doping of As, it is necessary to adopt appropriate implantation and annealing conditions.
Combining the long serial analysis of gene expression (LongSAGE) and the generation of longer cDNA fragments from serial analysis of gene expression tags for gene identification (GLGI) technique, a new strategy called modified GLGI (M-GLGI) was developed to isolate unknown 3′ expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and discover novel genes. A 17 bp LongSAGE tag was used as sense primer instead of a 10-base SAGE tag; PCR reaction was performed under an appropriate annealing temperature for each tag; universal DNA polymerase was used in PCR amplification instead of Pfu enzyme; a common cloning strategy using pMD-18T vector and Escherichia coli DH5α cells were used instead of a special vector and competent cells. Moreover, ESTs isolated by M-GLGI had 3′ ends with the polyadenylation signals and poly(dA) tails. This method is more sensitive for identifying genes expressed in low abundance than conventional EST sequencing.
The structural gene encoding ApxII toxin (apxIIA) was amplified from the genomic DNA of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) strain HB08 (serotype 2) and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis showed that the apxIIA gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and the expressed products could react with ApxII antibodies. The recombinant ApxIIA was purified from the inclusion bodies. Kunming mice were intraperitoneally vaccinated twice, with an interval of 2 weeks, using unfolded/refolded recombinant proteins, the native ApxII toxin extracted from the cultural supernatant of a strain of APP serotype 7 (APP-7) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Serum antibody was examined by ApxIIA-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) 2 weeks after every vaccination. Two weeks after the second vaccination, mice were challenged intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of APP-7 (1.08 × 108 cfu per mouse). The protection rate reached 91.7% in the native ApxII group, 83.3% in the refolded recombinant protein group and 58.3% in the unfolded recombinant protein group, while all mice in the PBS group died within 36 h after challenge. Our data revealed that the refolded recombinant ApxIIA had excellent immunogenicity and could elicit protection against a lethal challenge of APP.
This paper is concerned with robustness with respect to small delays for the exponential stability of abstract differential equations in Banach spaces. Some necessary and sufficient conditions are given in terms of the uniformly square integrability of the fundamental operator family and the uniform boundedness of its resolvent on the imaginary axis.