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A conventional Differential GPS (DGPS) techniques-based velocity and acceleration method (named here as ‘DVA’) may be difficult to implement in the Antarctic as there is a sparse distribution of reference stations over Antarctica. Thus, in order to overcome the baseline limitations and to obtain highly accurate and reliable velocity and acceleration estimates for airborne gravimetry, a network-based velocity and acceleration determination approach (named here as ‘NVA’), which introduces a wide network of stations and is independent of precise clock information, is applied. Here its performance for velocity and acceleration determination is fully exploited by using Global Positioning System (GPS), GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou observations. Additionally, a standalone receiver-based method named ‘SVA’, which requires precise clock information, is also implemented for comparison. During static tests and a flight experiment over Antarctica, it was found that the NVA method yields more robust results than the SVA and DVA methods when applied to a wide area network. Moreover, the addition of GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou systems can increase the accuracy of velocity and acceleration estimates by 39% and 43% with NVA compared to a GPS-only solution.
The elastic properties and solid-solution strengthening (SSS) of the binary Ni–Co and Ni–Cr, and ternary Ni–Co–Cr alloys were investigated by the first-principles method. The results show that both Co and Cr increase lattice parameters of the binary alloys linearly. However, nonlinearity is found in compositional dependence of lattice parameters in the ternary Ni–Co–Cr alloys, that is, Co increases but decreases the lattice parameter at low and high Cr concentrations, respectively. Co increases the bulk, shear, and Young’s moduli (B, G, and E), while Cr increases B but decreases G and E in the binary alloys. In the ternary Ni–Co–Cr alloys, G and E have a similar compositional dependence to those in the binary alloys, except for B. Based on the Labusch model, the SSS parameter of Ni–Cr is larger than that of Ni–Co. The SSS effect increases significantly with Cr addition, especially at low Co concentrations in the ternary Ni–Co–Cr alloys. Meanwhile, it increases mildly with Co addition at low Cr concentrations but decreases with Co addition at high Cr concentrations.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Exosomes are living nanoscale vesicles that can shuttle large amounts of bioactive cargo for intercellular communication. The potential of these nanovesicles to serve as both biomarkers for disease diagnosis and vehicles for delivery of therapeutics has only begun to be explored. To realize these potentials, molecular tools for effective exosome tracking and capturing must be invented in order to advance basic research and clinical translation. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We utilize a surface display strategy that enables exosome modification in living mammalian systems. By reconfiguring the surface protein CD63 or viral envelope glycoprotein VSV-G, we generate 3 topologically distinctive protein chimeras for exosome imaging and capture in mammalian systems. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We have shown that these genetically encoded protein chimeras have the ability to correctly target and integrate into exosomes in cultured human cells. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the secreted exosomes could be successfully captured by an affinity peptide intentionally displayed on the outer surface of exosomes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our study highlights the potential of these fusion proteins for exosome tracking and provides novel genetic tools for exosome research and translation, one of which is loading protein therapeutics for targeted delivery.
The semilocal convergence of a third-order Newton-like method for solving nonlinear equations is considered. Under a weak condition (the so-called γ-condition) on the derivative of the nonlinear operator, we establish a new semilocal convergence theorem for the Newton-like method and also provide an error estimate. Some numerical examples show the applicability and efficiency of our result, in comparison to other semilocal convergence theorems.
The degradation, alteration and depletion of riparian habitats caused by river regulation are among critical conservation concerns. Aquatic and riparian habitats support not only river-dwelling biota such as macroinvertebrates and fish, but also waterbirds, the top predators in the aquatic food web. Despite the intimate relationships between fish and waterbirds, the two groups are often investigated separately. Using an integrative approach, we examined the effects of dams on fish and scaly-sided merganser (Mergus squamatus), an endangered, iconic riverine species, where the lack of knowledge about habitat preferences greatly hampers long-term conservation efforts. Our analysis quantified three causal links: (1) water depth had direct, comparable, negative effects on both fish and waterbirds, and the path coefficients for fish and birds are –0.31 and –0.46, respectively; (2) river landscape heterogeneity directly and positively affected fish and waterbirds, and the path coefficients for fish and birds are 0.63 and 0.19, respectively; and (3) depth and river landscape also exerted indirect effects on waterbirds through their impacts on fish abundance, and the path coefficients for fish and birds are –0.15 and 0.28, respectively. Our findings could contribute to the rational spatial planning and sustainable operation of dams in that maintaining instream habitat availability and heterogeneity would benefit the whole riverine ecosystem.
Topological evolution of compressible turbulent boundary layers at Mach 2 is investigated by means of statistical analysis of the invariants of the velocity gradient tensor based on the direct numerical simulation database. The probability density functions of the rate of change of the invariants exhibit the
power-law distribution in the region of large Lagrangian derivative of the invariants in the inner and outer layers. The topological evolution is studied by conditional mean trajectories for the evolution of the invariants. The trajectories illustrate inward-spiralling orbits around and converging to the origin of the space of invariants in the outer layer, while they are repelled by the vicinity of the origin and converge towards a limit cycle in the inner layer. The compressibility effect on the mean topological evolution is studied in terms of the ‘incompressible’, compressed and expanding regions. It is found that the mean evolution of flow topologies is altered by the compressibility. The evolution equations of the invariants are derived and the relevant dynamics of the mean topological evolution are analysed. The compressibility effect is mainly related to the pressure effect. The mutual-interaction terms among the invariants are the root of the clockwise spiral behaviour of the local flow topology in the space of invariants.
Cu0.62Zn0.38 foil was subjected to surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) processing first. Growth behavior of ZnO nanostructure on the SMAT Cu0.62Zn0.38 surface during thermal oxidation was investigated in this paper. The original and SMAT Cu0.62Zn0.38 foils were thermally oxidized at 400 ~ 700 °C under various gaseous environments, including nitrogen and mixture of N2-O2 at a pressure of 1 atm. for 3 h. The oxidized specimens were characterized with a scanning electron microscope, an X-ray diffractometer and a transmission electron microscope. It is found that nanosheets are easily formed on the SMAT specimen surface. The favorable formation of nanosheets relates to twin lamellae structure of Cu0.62Zn0.38 formed during SMAT processing.
In this article, the effects of substrate temperature on the crystallographic structure and first-order magnetic phase transition in iron-rhodium (FeRh) thin films are investigated. It was found that for the as-deposited FeRh thin films, 350–400 °C is the optimal range of substrate temperature for obtaining B2 ordered FeRh thin films. After postannealing, it was shown that 400 °C is the optimized substrate deposition temperature for obtaining the best chemical/atomic ordering in postannealed FeRh thin films. Magnetization studies indicate that the as-deposited FeRh thin film with substrate temperature of 350 °C does not show a first-order antiferromagnetic (AFM)- to-ferromagnetic (FM) phase transition behavior during heating process and it gives a typical FM behavior whereas the as-deposited FeRh thin film deposited at 400 °C shows a broad first-order AFM-to-FM phase transition during heating and cooling processes. Both the postannealed FeRh thin films deposited at 350 and 400 °C give a clear first-order AFM-to-FM phase transition with a residual magnetization of about 50–100 emu/cc. The residual magnetization may possibly be caused by the disordered bcc (α) FM phase, B2 ordered (α′) FM phase or a near-surface/interfacial ferromagnetism in the ordered FeRh thin films.
Intense non-thermal radiation spikes were observed prior to energy quench in HT-7 tokamak. The dynamic properties of non-thermal electrons have been analyzed. Observation manifests that some non-thermal electrons are confined in the vicinity of q = 1 magnetic surface which results in hot spot phenomenon just before disruption.
The indica rice Xieqingzao eB1 (XQZ eB1), a mutant with an elongated uppermost internode, was produced by mutagenesis from elite maintainer line Xieqingzao B (XQZ B) using γ-radiation. Compared with the wild-type XQZ B, plant height and the length of the rice panicle neck, second internode and third internode from the panicle were elongated significantly in XQZ eB1. Genetic analysis indicated that the trait for uppermost internode elongation of XQZ eB1 is controlled by a single recessive gene eui1, which is allelic to that of IR50eui (derived from 76:4512). Further studies were carried out using the bulk segregated analysis approach. An F3 population, derived from the cross XQZ eB1×Aijiaonante, was used to map the mutant gene eui1. Two SSR makers, RM164 and AC9, were identified to link to eui1, their genetic distances to eui1 being 18.4 and 7.9 cM, respectively. The eui1 gene was also mapped to the long arm of chromosome 5 in this research.
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