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A total of 3217 strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci and micrococci were tested for susceptibility to a collection of phages isolated from coagulase-negative cocci; it was concluded that a useful typing scheme could be developed. Of the strains of Baird-Parker's biotype 1, 72% were lysed by one or more phages, although rather a large proportion of strains are lysed by many phages to give a complex typing pattern.
Normal persons commonly yield 10 or more distinguishable strains of coagulase-negative cocci in cultures from the nose and the skin.
Between 1961 and 1972, 4547 independent strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from one hospital were examined for phage type. After 1967 there was a decline in the number of strains received, which we consider reflects a decline in the number of infections in the hospital, and which was largely accounted for by a great reduction in the number of strains in four ‘epidemic’ types. Overall, the number of multiple-resistant staphylococci received also declined; this was in part due to the decline in the epidemic types and in part to a reduction in the proportion of multiple-resistant strains of all types.
The migration in mice of 20, 50 and 90 krad. 60Co-irradiated Schistosoma mansoni larvae, biosynthetically radio-isotope labelled with [75Se]-selenomethionine, was evaluated by autoradiography of compressed tissues and compared to the migration of non-irradiated 75Se-labelled larvae. The migration of 20 krad. -irradiated schistosomula between skin and lungs was slightly delayed but otherwise paralleled the migration of normal, non-irradiated schistosomula during the first 8 days following exposure. By day 8 over 90% of both non-irradiated and 20 krad. -irradiated organises were located in the lungs. In contrast to non-irradiated organisms, however, only a small proportion of 20 krad. organisms migrated to the liver. The delay in migration between skin and lungs was more pronounced with 50 krad. -irradiated schistosomula. Nevertheless, 45–93% of 50 krad. -irradiated organisms migrated to the lungs by 8 days post-exposure. Over 90% of the 50 krad. larvae detected in the mouse on day 21 were in the lungs; no more than an occasional 50 krad.-irradiated organism was ever detected in the liver. In three experiments, over 85% of the 90 krad. -irradiated organisms were retained in the skin; in a fourth experiment about half of the 90 krad. -irradiated organisms migrated as far as the lungs. As with 50 krad. organisms, only an occasional 90 krad. organism was ever detected in the liver. Removal of the skin exposure site within the first 4 days of immunization with either 50 or 90 krad. -irradiated cercariae completely blocked the induction of resistance. Removal between the 4th and 6th days gave variable results. Mice had to be in contact with the irradiated larvae for a minimum of 8–11 days to stimulate a level of resistance comparable to that of mice whose immunization site was not removed.
The number of schistosomula in lungs was determined by compressed organ autoradiography at intervals up to 14 days after exposure of mice to 75Se-labelled cercariae by tail immersion. Probit analysis of compressed lung autoradiogram focus counts, expressed as percentages of initial infection level, yielded estimates of the average time of arrival, peak accumulation in the lungs and average time of departure of schistosomula: 4·5±0·87, 6·3 ± 0·45 and 11±0·58 days, respectively. At peak accumulation 92±3·5 % of the initial number of schistosomula were found in the lungs. It thus appears that little or no significant attrition of schistosomula occurred in the skin and, instead, that most of the 50–70% of penetrant cercariae that fail to reach adulthood are lost somewhere between the pulmonary and hepatic phases of development. Loss of 75Se label from schistosomula during the first 14 days was exponential, with an average half-life of 4·5±0·81 days. However, the high sensitivity of autoradiography tended to compensate for this rather rapid rate of label loss. It was pointed out that autoradiographic detection of schistosomula as discrete loci of radioactivity can also be expected to overcome the problem posed by the accumulation in such tissues as liver and kidney of 75Se label that has become separated from larvae.
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