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The success of radiation therapy for cancer patients is dependent on the ability to deliver a total tumouricidal radiation dose capable of eradicating all cancer cells within the clinical target volume, however, the radiation dose tolerance of the surrounding healthy tissues becomes the main dose-limiting factor. The normal tissue adverse effects following radiotherapy are common and significantly impact the quality of life of patients. The likelihood of developing these adverse effects following radiotherapy cannot be predicted based only on the radiation treatment parameters. However, there is evidence to suggest that some common genetic variants are associated with radiotherapy response and the risk of developing adverse effects. Radiation genomics is a field that has evolved in recent years investigating the association between patient genomic data and the response to radiation therapy. This field aims to identify genetic markers that are linked to individual radiosensitivity with the potential to predict the risk of developing adverse effects due to radiotherapy using patient genomic information. It also aims to determine the relative radioresponse of patients using their genetic information for the potential prediction of patient radiation treatment response.
Methods and materials
This paper reports on a review of recent studies in the field of radiation genomics investigating the association between genomic data and patients response to radiation therapy, including the investigation of the role of genetic variants on an individual’s predisposition to enhanced radiotherapy radiosensitivity or radioresponse.
The potential for early prediction of treatment response and patient outcome is critical in cancer patients to make decisions regarding continuation, escalation, discontinuation, and/or change in treatment options to maximise patient survival while minimising adverse effects and maintaining patients’ quality of life.
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