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Plasma concentrations of vitamin E and carotenoids are governed by several factors, including genetic factors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in some genes involved in lipid metabolism have recently been associated with fasting plasma concentrations of these fat-soluble micronutrients. To further investigate the role of genetic factors that modulate the plasma concentrations of these micronutrients, we assessed whether SNP in five candidate genes (apo C-III, CETP, hepatic lipase, I-FABP and MTP) were associated with the plasma concentrations of these micronutrients. Fasting plasma vitamin E and carotenoid concentrations were measured in 129 French Caucasian subjects (forty-eight males and eighty-one females). Candidate SNP were genotyped by PCR amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Plasma γ-tocopherol, α-carotene and β-carotene concentrations were significantly different (P < 0·05) in subjects who carried different SNP variants in hepatic lipase. Plasma α-tocopherol concentrations were significantly different in subjects who had different SNP variants in apo C-III and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). Plasma lycopene concentrations were significantly different (P < 0·05) in women who had different SNP variants in intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP). Finally, there was no effect of SNP variants in microsomal TAG transfer protein upon the plasma concentrations of these micronutrients. Most of the observed differences remained significant after the plasma micronutrients were adjusted for plasma TAG and cholesterol. These results suggest that apo C-III, CETP and hepatic lipase play a role in determining the plasma concentrations of tocopherols while hepatic lipase and I-FABP may modulate plasma concentrations of carotenoids.
Anthocyanins are natural dietary pigments with a wide array of biological properties that are possibly involved in the prevention of various diseases. These properties depend on their absorption and metabolism in the body. In the present study we first examined the gastric and intestinal absorption of pelargonidin 3-glucoside (Pg 3-glc) using rat in situ models. A high proportion of Pg 3-glc was rapidly absorbed from both the stomach (23 %) and small intestine (24 %). Its metabolism was further studied by feeding rats during 8 d with a diet enriched in freeze-dried strawberries. Only low amounts of total anthocyanins were recovered in 24 h urine (0·163 (sem 0·013) % of ingested anthocyanins; n 8). Strawberry anthocyanins were analysed in urine by HPLC-electrospray ionisation-tandem MS. Similar proportions of intact glycosides (about 53 %) and glucuronidated metabolites (about 47 %) were found. Pg 3-glc was thus glucuronidated to a larger extent than cyanidin 3-glucoside. These results highlight the influence of the aglycone structure on anthocyanin metabolism.
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