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Little is known about patient-specific factors contributing to central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) outside of the intensive care unit (ICU). We sought to describe these factors and hypothesized that dialysis patients would comprise a significant proportion of this cohort.
Retrospective observational study from January 2010 to December 2011
An 880-bed tertiary teaching hospital
Patients with CLABSI in non–ICU wards
CLABSI patients were identified from existing infection-control databases and primary chart review was conducted. National Health and Safety Network (NHSN) definitions were utilized for CLABSI and pathogen classification. CLABSI rates were calculated per patient day. Total mortality rates were inclusive of hospice patients.
Over a 2-year period, 104 patients incurred 113 CLABSIs for an infection rate of 0.35 per 1,000 patient days. The mean length of hospital stay prior to CLABSI was 16±13.3 days, which was nearly 3 times that of hospital-wide non-ICU length of stay. Only 11 patients (10.6%) received dialysis within 48 hours of CLABSI. However, 67% of patients had a hematologic malignancy, and 91.8% of those admitted with a malignant hematologic diagnosis were neutropenic at the time of CLABSI. Enterococcus spp. was the most common organism recovered, and half of all central venous catheters (CVCs) present were peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC lines). Mortality rates were 18.3% overall and 27.3% among dialysis patients.
In patients with CLABSIs outside of the ICU, only 10.6% received dialysis prior to infection. However, underlying hematologic malignancy, neutropenia, and PICC lines were highly prevalent in this population.
Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) tip malposition is potentially associated with complications, and postplacement adjustment of PICCs is widely performed. We sought to characterize the association between central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) or venous thrombus (VT) and PICC adjustment.
Retrospective cohort study.
University of Michigan Health System, a large referral hospital.
Patients who had PICCs placed between February 2007 and August 2007.
The primary outcomes were development of CLABSI within 14 days or VT within 60 days of postplacement PICC adjustment, identified by review of patient electronic medical records.
There were 57 CLABSIs (2.69/1,000 PICC-days) and 47 VTs (1.23/1,000 PICC-days); 609 individuals had 1, 134 had 2, and 33 had 3 or more adjustments. One adjustment was protective against CLABSI (P = .04), whereas 2 or 3 or more adjustments had no association with CLABSI (P = .58 and .47, respectively). One, 2, and 3 or more adjustments had no association with VT formation (P = .59, .85, and .78, respectively). Immunosuppression (P< .01), power-injectable PICCs (P = .05), and 3 PICC lumens compared with 1 lumen (P = .02) were associated with CLABSI. Power-injectable PICCs were also associated with increased VT formation (P = .03).
Immunosuppression and 3 PICC lumens were associated with increased risk of CLABSI. Power-injectable PICCs were associated with increased risk of CLABSI and VT formation. Postplacement adjustment of PICCs was not associated with increased risk of CLABSI or VT. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013;34(8):785-792
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