Non-invasive genetic analysis using new, high-precision molecular tools has been an extremely important recent development in primatology, with the promise of pioneering studies in the early–mid 1990s (see, for example, Morin et al., 1994) now being realized at the level of large-scale population studies over broad spatial scales (see, for example, Constable et al., 2001; Anthony et al., 2007b). However, it remains technically demanding, time-consuming, expensive and prone to error. Here, we introduce the applications of non-invasive genetics in primatology, then cover protocols for the most common non-invasive sample types, including faeces, urine and hair, outlining the limitations, pitfalls, and methodologies required. We also describe storage protocols for other possible sources of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), including blood and tissue biopsy samples for occasions when animals are captured and handled (Chapters 7 and 8).
Molecular phylogenetic studies continue to add to our knowledge of primate diversity, evolution and hence adaptation (see, for example, Burrell et al., 2009). Phylogenetic analysis can also be used below the species level to study the underlying biogeographical factors that have contributed to the diversity present in primate populations today. This approach has been used to highlight new, evolutionarily distinct populations within well-studied species and to pinpoint potentially important geographical barriers that may delimit genetic divergences across the range of species (see, for example, Gonder et al., 1997).