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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Examine data from PNID patients to evaluation the strength of associations between pre-operative and post-operative levels of pain, quality of life, and emotional reactions to pain to determine if one or more can serve as better predictors of surgical success than pain. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In our preliminary study, we gathered data from a pre-existing database of 464 PNID patients that contains self-reported visual analog scale scores (VAS) of pain intensity, QoL, and depression. We measured these variables at three time points: pre-operatively, post-operatively, and at the final visit. We used the Wilcoxon signed rank test to determine if each of these three variables differed significantly between the pre-operative visit and the post-operative visit period and from the pre-operative visit to the final visit. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Median time from the pre-operative visit to surgery was 9 weeks; median time from surgery to the post-operative visit was 4 weeks; and median time from the post-operative visit to the final visit was 23.5 weeks. There was a clinically meaningful difference in pain scores between the pre-operative and post-operative visits (median difference 1.15; 95% CI 0.75-1.55). In the period between the post-operative visit and the final visit there was also a decrease in pain (0.90; 95% CI 0.55-1.30). The magnitude of change in median difference of 1.85 (95% CI 1.50-2.20) between the pre-operative visit and the final visit was larger than the change in median difference of 0.90 (95% CI 0.55-1.30) between the post-operative visit and the final visit. The pre-operative visit median QoL score was higher than the median score at the post-operative visit (1.65; 95% CI 1.25-2.10). The smallest median difference in QoL of occurred between the post-operative and the final visit (1.10; 95% CI 0.60-1.45). As seen with the pain scores, the magnitude of change in median difference of 2.50 (95% CI 2.20-2.85) for QoL was greatest between the pre-operative and the final visit. Depression scores showed the least amount of change amongst all the variables, between the pre-operative and the post-operative visit (1.00; 95% CI (0.70-1.40), and similarly between the post-operative visit and the final visit (0.15; 95% CI (0-.40). The median differences between the pre-operative and final visit were greatest in QoL (2.50; 95% CI 2.20-2.85), followed by pain scores (1.85; 95% CI 1.50-2.20), and finally, depression (1.05; 95% CI 0.70-1.40). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our results show that all three variables measured improve with surgery and continue to improve over the post-operative course to the final visit. This suggest that the relationships between pain, QoL, and depression should be further investigated. We are hopeful that elucidating how these variables interact in the PNID patient population, will encourage peripheral nerve surgeons to use these parameters in conjunction with pain intensity to measure outcomes. A follow-up study expanding on these results and including measures of anger and frustration in a larger sample is underway.
Genome assemblies can form the basis of comparative analyses fostering insight into the evolutionary genetics of a parasite's pathogenicity, host–pathogen interactions, environmental constraints and invasion biology; however, the length and complexity of many parasite genomes has hampered the development of well-resolved assemblies. In order to improve Trichinella genome assemblies, the genome of the sylvatic encapsulated species Trichinella murrelli was sequenced using third-generation, long-read technology and, using syntenic comparisons, scaffolded to a reference genome assembly of Trichinella spiralis, markedly improving both. A high-quality draft assembly for T. murrelli was achieved that totalled 63·2 Mbp, half of which was condensed into 26 contigs each longer than 571 000 bp. When compared with previous assemblies for parasites in the genus, ours required 10-fold fewer contigs, which were five times longer, on average. Better assembly across repetitive regions also enabled resolution of 8 Mbp of previously indeterminate sequence. Furthermore, syntenic comparisons identified widespread scaffold misassemblies in the T. spiralis reference genome. The two new assemblies, organized for the first time into three chromosomal scaffolds, will be valuable resources for future studies linking phenotypic traits within each species to their underlying genetic bases.
The UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (GPs) expect businesses to participate in operational-level, non-judicial mechanisms to address the grievances of communities affected by their activities. While there is guidance on operational-level grievance mechanisms as to what constitutes an effective process, inquiries into the effectiveness of outcomes have been met with less success. This article identifies three key incongruities within the GPs regarding effective outcomes: (1) the broader interpretation of remedy within the Remedy Pillar compared to the Respect Pillar; (2) the novelty of enforcing human rights through dialogue and engagement as opposed to adjudication; and (3) the difficulty in reconciling objective human rights standards with the subjective preferences of the parties. It then aims to resolve these issues by applying a human rights-based approach: examining how empowerment of communities can act as the founding basis for understanding whether an outcome is effective. It concludes by examining the working of the Porgera Mine mechanism from this perspective.
Studying the internal dynamics of stellar clusters is conducted primarily through N-Body simulations. One of the major inputs into N-Body simulations is the binary star frequency and mass distribution, which is currently constrained by relations derived from field binary stars. However to truly understand how clustered environments evolve, binary data from within star clusters is needed including masses. Detailed information on binaries masses, primary and secondary, in star clusters has been limited to date. The primary technique currently available has been radial velocity surveys that are limited in depth. Using previous two-band photometry-based studies that may cover different mass ranges produce potentially discrepant interpretations of the observed binary population. We introduce a new binary detection method, Binary INformation from Open Clusters Using SEDs (BINOCS) that covers the wide mass range needed to improve cluster N-body simulation inputs and comparisons. Using newly-observed multi-wavelength photometric catalogs (0.3 - 8 microns) of the key open clusters with a range of ages, we can show that the BINOCS method determines accurate binary component masses for unresolved cluster binaries through comparison to available RV-based studies. Using this method, we present results on the dynamical evolution of binaries from 0.4 - 2.5 solar masses within five prototypical clusters, spaning 30 Myr to 3.5 Gyr, and how the binary populations evolve as a function of mass.
Human contrast sensitivity for narrowband Gabor targets is suppressed when superimposed on narrowband masks of the same spatial frequency and orientation (referred to as overlay suppression), with suppression being broadly tuned to orientation and spatial frequency. Numerous behavioral and neurophysiological experiments have suggested that overlay suppression originates from the initial lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) inputs to V1, which is consistent with the broad tuning typically reported for overlay suppression. However, recent reports have shown narrowly tuned anisotropic overlay suppression when narrowband targets are masked by broadband noise. Consequently, researchers have argued for an additional form of overlay suppression that involves cortical contrast gain control processes. The current study sought to further explore this notion behaviorally using narrowband and broadband masks, along with a computational neural simulation of the hypothesized underlying gain control processes in cortex. Additionally, we employed transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in order to test whether cortical processes are involved in driving narrowly tuned anisotropic suppression. The behavioral results yielded anisotropic overlay suppression for both broadband and narrowband masks and could be replicated with our computational neural simulation of anisotropic gain control. Further, the anisotropic form of overlay suppression could be directly modulated by tDCS, which would not be expected if the suppression was primarily subcortical in origin. Altogether, the results of the current study provide further evidence in support of an additional overlay suppression process that originates in cortex and show that this form of suppression is also observable with narrowband masks.
The transformation of the alien priories in England in the decades around 1400 was largely driven by laymen. Kings, nobles and gentry, as well as aspiring middling sorts, responded to the permanent state of war with France by confiscating the properties of more than 125 cells and bailiwicks belonging to overseas abbeys, as well as naturalizing around thirty of the latter's larger dependencies. Broadly speaking, houses which were large enough to function as monasteries, ‘conventual’ houses, even if small ones, survived in Anglicized form, their French ‘alien’ monks replaced by English denizens, and their links with their mother-houses cut. Those small cells which could not support discernible monastic life, and the properties whose function was to export income to foreign abbeys, were confiscated and redistributed to old and new English ecclesiastical foundations. The episode is not the least important for what it reveals about lay attitudes to the Church about a century before the Reformation. But how did the clergy respond to this largely lay action to reform ecclesiastical institutions and redistribute the Church's property? Prelates were rarely able to take the initiative in this episode, but their actions and pronouncements are equally revealing, of perspectives within the Church itself and of the control exerted over it by the lay power.
The years between the early fourteenth and the mid sixteenth century are of considerable interest in the history of the prelate. In some respects, this era might be regarded as a golden age of prelacy, culminating in the appearance of great ecclesiastical dignitaries across much of Europe, such as Wolsey, d'Amboise, Cisneros, Lang and Jagiellon. In terms of their political weight, their grandeur and their wide-ranging cultural patronage, these early sixteenth-century ‘cardinal-ministers’ arguably represented a high point in prelatical influence. Nor should they be regarded as wholly distinct from their clerical contemporaries: recent studies of Renaissance cardinals and the early Tudor episcopate indicate that the next rank of senior churchmen were no less concerned to express the importance and dignity of their office. However, the period c. 1300–c. 1560 also witnessed a developing critique of prelacy – not unconnected with these eye-catching assertions of ecclesiastical status and power – with complaints about senior members of the Church hierarchy a commonplace in the literature and preaching of the day. To these criticisms were added attacks on the very concept of the prelate, which was rejected as unscriptural by John Wyclif and his followers: a critique which would be taken up enthusiastically by sixteenth-century reformers in England and Europe.
This volume has grown out of a conference on ‘The Prelate in Late Medieval and Reformation England’, held at the University of Liverpool in September 2011. All the papers delivered at that conference are published below, apart from those given by Natalia Nowakowska and Brigitte Resl. The volume also includes a chapter by Cédric Michon, offered subsequent to the Liverpool conference. I would like to thank the contributors to both the conference and to the volume, all of whom have been stimulating and good-humoured collaborators throughout this project.
I would also like to acknowledge gratefully the work and expert guidance of all those at Boydell & Brewer and York Medieval Press who have been involved with this volume and especially Caroline Palmer, Rohais Haughton and Professor Peter Biller. The Liverpool conference was funded partly by a British Academy Research Development Award, and partly by financial contributions from the department of History of the University of Liverpool and the Liverpool Centre for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, without all of whose generous support the event could not have taken place. This publication has also been made possible by a grant from the Scouloudi Foundation in association with the Institute of Historical Research, acknowledged here with gratitude.