To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Children with congenital heart disease are at high risk for malnutrition. Standardisation of feeding protocols has shown promise in decreasing some of this risk. With little standardisation between institutions’ feeding protocols and no understanding of protocol adherence, it is important to analyse the efficacy of individual aspects of the protocols.
Adherence to and deviation from a feeding protocol in high-risk congenital heart disease patients between December 2015 and March 2017 were analysed. Associations between adherence to and deviation from the protocol and clinical outcomes were also assessed. The primary outcome was change in weight-for-age z score between time intervals.
Increased adherence to and decreased deviation from individual instructions of a feeding protocol improves patients change in weight-for-age z score between birth and hospital discharge (p = 0.031). Secondary outcomes such as markers of clinical severity and nutritional delivery were not statistically different between groups with high or low adherence or deviation rates.
High-risk feeding protocol adherence and fewer deviations are associated with weight gain independent of their influence on nutritional delivery and caloric intake. Future studies assessing the efficacy of feeding protocols should include the measures of adherence and deviations that are not merely limited to caloric delivery and illness severity.
Objectives: The Tower of London (TOL) test has probably become the most often used task to assess planning ability in clinical and experimental settings. Since its implementation, efforts were made to provide a task version with adequate psychometric properties, but extensive normative data are not publicly available until now. The computerized TOL-Freiburg Version (TOL-F) was developed based on theory-grounded task analyses, and its psychometric adequacy has been repeatedly demonstrated in several studies but often with small and selective samples. Method: In the present study, we now report reliability estimates and normative data for the TOL-F stratified for age, sex, and education from a large population-representative sample collected in the Gutenberg Health Study in Mainz, Germany (n=7703; 40–80 years). Results: The present data confirm previously reported adequate indices of reliability (>.70) of the TOL-F. We also provide normative data for the TOL-F stratified for age (5-year intervals), sex, and education (low vs. high education). Conclusions: Together, its adequate reliability and the representative age-, sex-, and education-fair normative data render the computerized TOL-F a suitable diagnostic instrument to assess planning ability. (JINS, 2019, 25, 520–529)
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Impairment on inhibitory tasks has been well documented in bipolar disorder (BD). Differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF) between BD patients and healthy comparison (HC) participants have also been reported. Few studies have examined the relationship between cognitive performance and regional CBF in this patient population. We hypothesized that group differences on an inhibitory task (the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function Scale’s Color-Word Inhibition task) would be associated with differential CBF in bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) regions. Whole brain resting CBF was measured using Multiphase Pseudocontinuous Arterial Spin Labeling MR imaging for 28 euthymic BD and 36 HC participants. Total gray matter (GM) CBF was measured, and regional CBF values were extracted for each region of interest (ROI) using Freesurfer-based individual parcellations. Group, CBF, and group-by-CBF interaction were examined as predictors of inhibition performance. Groups did not differ in age, gender or education. BD patients performed significantly worse on Color-Word inhibition. There were no significant group differences in CBF in either total GM or in any ROI. There was a group by CBF interaction in the bilateral ACC, right IPL and right DLPFC such that better inhibitory performance was generally associated with higher resting state CBF in BD subjects, but not HC participants. Although CBF was not abnormal in this euthymic BD sample, results confirm previous reports of inter-episode inhibitory deficits and indicate that the perfusion-cognition relationship is different in BD compared to HC individuals. (JINS, 2015, 21, 105–115)
We surveyed 399 US acute care hospitals regarding availability of on-site Legionella testing; 300 (75.2%) did not offer Legionella testing on site. Availability varied according to hospital size and geographic location. On-site access to testing may improve detection of Legionnaires disease and inform patient management and prevention efforts.
Two new kirkocystid mitrate stylophorans (Echinodermata, Homalozoa) and a new possible solute (Echinodermata, Homalozoa) are described from the Early Ordovician of the western United States. The mitrates are among the earliest members of their clade to appear near the beginning of the Ordovician Radiation. Anatifopsis ninemilensis new species comes from the Ninemile Shale in central Nevada and the McKelligon Canyon Formation in west Texas. Anatifopsis fillmorensis new species comes from the middle Fillmore Formation in western Utah and a Ninemile Shale equivalent limestone bed in southern Nevada. The possible solute Drepanocystis dubius new genus new species from the lower Wah Wah Limestone in western Utah, shows unusual morphology with an elongate theca and a long arm shaped like a sickle.
This paper presents measured results for two-stage and three-stage high-voltage/high-power (HiVP) amplifiers implemented in a commercial 0.12 μm silicon germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) bipolar Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (BiCMOS) process at millimeter wave. The HiVP configuration provides a new tool for millimeter-wave silicon designers to achieve large output voltage swings, high output power density, customizable bias, and a way to minimize, if not eliminate, matching circuitry at millimeter-wave frequencies. The two-stage amplifier has achieved a PSAT = 5.41 dBm with a power added efficiency (PAE) of 8.06% at center frequency 30 GHz. The three-stage amplifier has achieved a PSAT = 8.85 dBm with a PAE of 11.35% with a total chip area of 0.068 mm2 at center frequency 30 GHz. Simulation, layout, fabrication, and measurement results are presented in this paper.
Single-dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuators have gained a great deal of world-wide interest for flow-control applications. With this has come the need for flow-interaction models of plasma actuators that can be used in computational flow simulations. SDBD plasma actuators consist of two electrodes: one uncovered and exposed to the air and the other encapsulated by a dielectric material. An AC electric potential is supplied to the electrodes. When the AC potential is large enough, the air in the region over the encapsulated electrode ionizes. The ionized air in the presence of the electric field results in a space–time dependent body force vector field. The body force is the mechanism for flow control. This study describes a semi-empirical model that has been developed to capture the dynamic nature of the local air ionization and time-dependent body force vector distribution. Validation of the model includes comparisons to experimentally measured space–time charge distribution and the time-resolved and time-averaged body force. Two flow simulations are then used to further validate the SDBD plasma actuator model. These involved an impulsively started plasma actuator in still air, and the flow around a circular cylinder in which plasma actuators were used to suppress the Karman vortex street. In both cases, the simulations agreed well with the experiments.