The development of high capacity cathode materials for lithium ion batteries has resulted in three materials dominating the market, lithiated manganese, cobalt and nickel oxides and mixtures thereof. In the search for greater energy storage, we have examined a number of vanadium oxides.
Comparing the ratio of lithium to metal atom in the three compounds listed above allows for the extraction of one lithium atom per two metal atoms. If the cathode is vanadium based, the number of cycleable lithiums increases to a value closer to 0.75–1.00.
Despite the fact that vanadium oxides operate at lower voltages, a net gain in energy is observed from the use of LixVyOz over the currently available materials. Lithiation of LiV3O7.9 for use in a lithium ion cell is the focus of this paper. Chemical lithiation by reducing lithium salt will be described.