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Compliance has become key to our contemporary markets, societies, and modes of governance across a variety of public and private domains. While this has stimulated a rich body of empirical and practical expertise on compliance, thus far, there has been no comprehensive understanding of what compliance is or how it influences various fields and sectors. The academic knowledge of compliance has remained siloed along different disciplinary domains, regulatory and legal spheres, and mechanisms and interventions. This handbook bridges these divides to provide the first one-stop overview of what compliance is, how we can best study it, and the core mechanisms that shape it. Written by leading experts, chapters offer perspectives from across law, regulatory studies, management science, criminology, economics, sociology, and psychology. This volume is the definitive and comprehensive account of compliance.
Older adults exhibit heightened vulnerability for alcohol-related health impairments. Increases in the proportion of older adults within the European Union’s total population and prevalence rates of alcohol use disorders in this age group are being observed. This large scale international study was conducted to identify those older adults with an increased risk to engage in hazardous drinking behaviour.
Socio-demographic, socio-economic, personality characteristics (Big Five Inventory, BFI-10), and alcohol consumption patterns of 13,351 individuals from 12 different European countries, collected by the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe, were analyzed using regression models.
Age, nationality, years of education, as well as personality traits, were significantly associated with alcohol intake. For males, extraversion predicted increased alcohol intake (RR = 1.11, CI = 1.07–1.16), whereas conscientiousness (RR = 0.93, CI = 0.89–0.97), and agreeableness (RR = 0.94, CI = 0.90–0.99), were associated with a reduction. For females, openness to new experiences (RR = 1.11, CI = 1.04–1.18) predicted increased alcohol intake. Concerning excessive drinking, personality traits, nationality, and age-predicted consumption patterns for both sexes: Extraversion was identified as a risk factor for excessive drinking (OR = 1.15; CI = 1.09–1.21), whereas conscientiousness was identified as a protective factor (OR = 0.87; CI = 0.823–0.93).
Hazardous alcohol consumption in the elderly was associated with specific personality characteristics. Preventative measures, crucial in reducing deleterious health consequences, should focus on translating the knowledge of the association of certain personality traits and alcohol consumption into improved prevention and treatment.
Precise instrumental calibration is of crucial importance to 21-cm cosmology experiments. The Murchison Widefield Array’s (MWA) Phase II compact configuration offers us opportunities for both redundant calibration and sky-based calibration algorithms; using the two in tandem is a potential approach to mitigate calibration errors caused by inaccurate sky models. The MWA Epoch of Reionization (EoR) experiment targets three patches of the sky (dubbed EoR0, EoR1, and EoR2) with deep observations. Previous work in Li et al. (2018) and (2019) studied the effect of tandem calibration on the EoR0 field and found that it yielded no significant improvement in the power spectrum (PS) over sky-based calibration alone. In this work, we apply similar techniques to the EoR1 field and find a distinct result: the improvements in the PS from tandem calibration are significant. To understand this result, we analyse both the calibration solutions themselves and the effects on the PS over three nights of EoR1 observations. We conclude that the presence of the bright radio galaxy Fornax A in EoR1 degrades the performance of sky-based calibration, which in turn enables redundant calibration to have a larger impact. These results suggest that redundant calibration can indeed mitigate some level of model incompleteness error.
Little empirical research has explored whether or not firm strategy is linked with corporate social responsibility (CSR) and to that end we explore the impact of low-cost and differentiation strategies on CSR. Using a sample of 229 Italian firms, a low-cost strategy is negatively associated with ethical and discretionary CSR, while a differentiation strategy is positively associated with both. Given its focus on nonfinancial outcomes and stakeholders, we test if a performance management system (PM system) acts as a moderating influence. We find that a PM system positively moderates the negative association between a low-cost strategy and ethical and discretionary CSR, while also positively moderating these relationships with respect to a differentiation strategy. These findings advance the literature on strategy and CSR, while demonstrating the contingent effect of PM systems. The findings are discussed along with limitations and directions for future research.
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an increasingly critical global public health challenge. An initial step in prevention is the understanding of resistance patterns with accurate surveillance. To improve accurate surveillance and good clinical care, we developed training materials to improve the appropriate collection of clinical culture samples in Ethiopia. Methods: Specimen-collection training materials were initially developed by a team of infectious diseases physicians, a clinical microbiologist, and a monitoring and evaluation specialist using a training of trainers (ToT) platform. Revisions after each training session were provided by Ethiopian attendees including the addition of regional and culturally relevant material. The training format involved didactic presentations, interactive practice sessions with participants providing feedback and training to each other and the entire group as well as assessments of all training activities. Results: Overall, 4 rounds of training were conducted from August 2017 to September 2019. The first 2 rounds of training were conducted by The Ohio State University (OSU) staff, and Ethiopian trainers conducted the last 2 rounds. Initial training was primarily in lecture format outlining use of microbiology laboratory findings in clinical practice and steps for collecting specimens correctly. Appropriate specimen collection was demonstrated and practiced. Essential feedback from this early audience provided input for the final development of the training manual and visual aids. The ToT for master trainers took place in July 2018 and was conducted by OSU staff. In sessions held in February and August 2019, these master trainers provided training to facility trainers, who provide training to personnel directly responsible for specimen collection. In total, 144 healthcare personnel (including physicians, nurses, and laboratory staff), from 12 representative Ethiopian public and academic hospitals participated in the trainings. Participants were satisfied with the quality of the training (typically ranked >4.5 of 5.0) and strongly agreed that the objectives were clearly defined and that the information was relevant to their work. Posttraining scores increased by 23%. Conclusions: Training materials for clinical specimen collection have been developed for use in low- and middle-resource settings and with initial pilot testing and adoption in Ethiopia. The trainings were well accepted, and Ethiopian personnel were able to successfully lead the trainings and improve their knowledge and skills regarding specimen collection. The materials are being finalized in an online format for easier open access dissemination. Further studies are planned to determine the effectiveness of the trainings in improving the quality of clinical specimen submissions to the microbiology laboratory.
Suicide risk in patients is markedly elevated during psychiatric inpatient care, as well as after discharge. However, it is unclear whether, and to what extent, this increased suicide risk varies between sex. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze sex differences for suicides during and after psychiatric hospitalization in various countries.
National suicide mortality rates and inpatient-related suicide rates (three intervals: during psychiatric inpatient treatment, 1 month, and 1 year after discharge) from 12 countries for 2000–2016 were analyzed, and a logistic model was used to quantify the effect of sex.
Persons admitted to or discharged from psychiatric inpatient care exhibited significantly increased rates of suicide compared to those in the general population. Furthermore, increase of suicide risk was significantly higher for females than for males for all investigated time intervals (inpatient suicide odds ratio [OR] 1.85; suicide within 1 month after discharge—OR 1.94; suicide within 1 year after discharge—OR 2.04).
Analysis confirmed the time during and after psychiatric inpatient care to be significantly associated with an elevated risk for suicide. Further, a significant sex effect was observed, with females in this population being at a proportionally higher risk for suicide during psychiatric inpatient treatment as well as the year following discharge. Our study implicates that more effective suicide preventive measures during inpatient stay, focusing on female patients, are needed.
Given an action
of inverse semigroup S on a ring A (with domain of
), we show that if the ideals
, with e an idempotent, are unital, then the skew inverse semigroup ring
can be realized as the convolution algebra of an ample groupoid with coefficients in a sheaf of (unital) rings. Conversely, we show that the convolution algebra of an ample groupoid with coefficients in a sheaf of rings is isomorphic to a skew inverse semigroup ring of this sort. We recover known results in the literature for Steinberg algebras over a field as special cases.
Off-target paraquat movement to rice has become a major problem in recent years for rice producers in the midsouthern United States. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is applied to rice in greater quantity and frequency than all other nutrients to optimize rice yield. Two separate field studies were conducted from 2015 to 2018 in Stoneville, MS, to assess whether starter N fertilizer can aid rice recovery from exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of paraquat and to evaluate rice response to different N fertilizer management strategies following exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of paraquat. In both studies, paraquat treatments consisted of paraquat at 0 and 84 g ai ha–1 applied to rice in the two- to three-leaf (EPOST) growth stage. In the starter fertilizer study, N fertilizer at 24 kg ha–1 as ammonium sulfate (AMS) was applied to rice at spiking- to one-leaf (VEPOST), two- to three-leaf (EPOST), or three- to four-leaf (MPOST) growth stages before and after paraquat treatment. In the N fertilizer timing study, N fertilizer at 168 kg N ha–1 was applied in a single four-leaf to one-tiller (LPOST) application or two-, three-, and two four-way split applications. Despite starter N fertilizer applications, paraquat injured rice ≥41%, reduced height 57%, reduced dry weight prior to flooding 77%, delayed maturity 10 d, reduced dry weight at maturity 33%, and reduced rough rice yield 35% in the starter fertilizer study. Similarly, in the N fertilizer timing study, paraquat injured rice ≥45%, reduced height 14%, delayed maturity 10 d, reduced dry weight at maturity 44%, and reduced rough rice yield 50% for all N fertilizer management strategies. Both studies indicate that severe complications in growth and development can occur from rice exposure to a sub-lethal concentration of paraquat. In both studies, manipulation of N fertilizer management did not facilitate rice recovery from early-season exposure to paraquat.
be a totally real field in which
is unramified. Let
be a modular Galois representation that satisfies the Taylor–Wiles hypotheses and is tamely ramified and generic at a place
be the corresponding Hecke eigensystem. We describe the
-torsion in the
cohomology of Shimura curves with full congruence level at
-representation. In particular, it only depends on
and its Jordan–Hölder factors appear with multiplicity one. The main ingredients are a description of the submodule structure for generic
-projective envelopes and the multiplicity one results of Emerton, Gee and Savitt [Lattices in the cohomology of Shimura curves, Invent. Math.200(1) (2015), 1–96].
In glyphosate-resistant (GR) cropping systems, paraquat applied in mixtures with residual herbicides prior to crop emergence offers an alternative herbicide mode of action (MOA) to aid in GR weed management. Rice is sensitive to off-target herbicide movement; however, severity of injury can vary with herbicide, rate, and formulation. Therefore, research was conducted from 2015 to 2017 in Stoneville, MS, to characterize rice response to a sublethal concentration of paraquat applied at 84 g ai ha–1 in combination with common residual herbicides. Paraquat plus metribuzin injured rice 68% to 69% 14 and 28 d after treatment (DAT), which was 10% to 13% greater than injury following paraquat alone or paraquat plus fomesafen. Pooled across metribuzin and fomesafen treatments, paraquat reduced rough rice yields 23%. Paraquat plus 10 different residual herbicides injured rice ≥51% 28 DAT and reduced rough rice yields ≥21%. These studies indicate a severe negative impact on rice growth and development following exposure to a sublethal concentration of paraquat alone or in mixture with common residual herbicides. Therefore, applications of paraquat plus residual herbicides to fields in proximity to rice should be avoided if conditions are conducive for off-target movement.
A. C. A. Eschenmayer (1768–1852) and F. W. J. Schelling (1775–1854) were born fairly close to one another in neighbouring towns west of Stuttgart (Neuenbürg and Leonberg), and, during the mid-1790s, both attended the University of Tübingen (although in different faculties); yet, the first recorded contact between them dates from 1797, in a now-lost letter in which Eschenmayer sent Schelling a copy of his newly completed dissertation on the philosophy of nature. It is to this dissertation that Schelling refers in his first published reference to Eschenmayer at the end of the 1797 Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature. Over the subsequent two years, Eschenmayer's and Schelling's thought evolved considerably, and, in 1799, Schelling took up correspondence with Eschenmayer once more to request an essay for publication in his planned Journal for Speculative Physics. In September 1800, Schelling did finally receive something from Eschenmayer: a sixty-eight-page critique of Schelling's own First Outline of a System of the Philosophy of Nature. It appeared in January 1801 and was immediately followed by a substantial ‘appendix’ by the editor – that is, Schelling – under the title Appendix to Eschenmayer's Essay concerning the True Concept of Philosophy of Nature and the Correct Way of Solving its Problems. Schelling himself presented this appendix to Eschenmayer in correspondence as a means ‘to come to a complete understanding’ with him, although there is little reason to believe that Schelling was in fact optimistic about their coming to any substantive philosophical agreement. Indeed, despite Schelling's positive allusions to Eschenmayer in the 1801 Presentation of my System of Philosophy and the 1802 dialogue, On the Absolute System of Identity, the controversy of 1801 only led the two philosophers to commit more fully to their fundamental disagreements, as evidenced by Eschenmayer's subsequent review of both the First Outline and the Introduction to the Outline, as well as his biting refutation of the Presentation in a letter sent to Schelling in summer 1801 – a letter that put an end to their correspondence for three years.
These are the basic historical details that gave rise to one of the more important intellectual disputes in German Idealism and the philosophy of nature.
Schelling's On the True Concept gives a somewhat misleading picture of what is at stake in his disagreement with Eschenmayer: it relegates to the end of the essay many of the specific problems within philosophy of nature that propelled their dialogue, so as to, instead, foreground the more global problem of the relation between the philosophy of nature and transcendental idealism. This is not to downplay the conclusions Schelling reaches concerning the priority of philosophy of nature; rather, our point is that On the True Concept obscures both the importance of the specific problems in the philosophy of nature and their connection to Schelling's views regarding the nature of reality and the philosopher's access to it. In this chapter, we provide a summary of the longstanding disagreements within the philosophy of nature that led to On the True Concept (and ultimately to the identity philosophy), focusing on the specific problem that ignites the controversy in 1799: the problem of constructing material qualities. Indeed, for Jantzen, everything ‘turns on’ this problem of quality. By charting Eschenmayer and Schelling's interactions on material quality from 1797 to early 1801, we hope to provide some of the intellectual context to their arguments in Spontaneity = World Soul and On the True Concept.
We also hope thereby to indicate more broadly how much of the subsequent development of German Idealism arises out of these debates on quality. The various nature-philosophical attempts devised to best explain the diversity of material qualities in the natural world become, from 1801 onwards, part of the theoretical apparatus of the metaphysics of absolute idealism. For example, we attempt to show in Chapter 3 that, in Leistner's words, ‘the question of the extent to which the mathematical construction of matter can construct or derive the specific quality of matter from quantitative proportions of two fundamental forces [is not] just an exotic problem in philosophy of nature’, but also concerns ‘the basic theoretical question of the original genesis of difference from identity’. From this perspective, it becomes plausible that the philosophy of nature ought – at least, on occasion – to have systematic priority for contemporary readers of the idealist tradition. It would not, then, be an abstruse, marginal supplement to idealist philosophy, of interest only to those scholars of German Idealism working on the concept of nature.
Adam Carl August von Eschenmayer is not a well-known figure in the history of philosophy. Even among scholars working on the German Idealist tradition, he tends not to be valued as a major philosopher in his own right; indeed, it would take a serious stretch of the imagination to suggest that Eschenmayer was one of the great post-Kantian thinkers, on a par with J. G. Fichte, F. W. J. Schelling, and G. W. F. Hegel. He was, however, one of Schelling's most perceptive and provocative critics during the first decade of the nineteenth century. From 1797 to (at least) 1812, Eschenmayer and Schelling repeatedly influenced and contested one another's work. Hence, Marquet describes Eschenmayer as a ‘curious interlocutor who reappears at each important turn in [Schelling’s] thought’, and Roux remarks that Eschenmayer was both Schilling's ‘opponent’ and ‘companion of choice’. Even the anglophone literature has come to acknowledge in passing the importance of Eschenmayer's provocations: Vater names him as a key ‘collaborator’ of Schelling’s; Grant devotes several pages to him in Philosophies of Nature after Schelling; Zammito has recently written of his ‘crucial contribution to the emergence of philosophy of nature’; Förster's critique of Schelling in The Twenty-Five Years of Philosophy acknowledges his importance; and Lauer and Wirth chart his role in the genesis of Schelling's account of reason and personality.
It is customary to speak of three major controversies between Eschenmayer and Schelling:
1. An exchange in January 1801 to be located in the pages of Schelling's own Journal of Speculative Physics, comprising Eschenmayer's first critical review of Schelling's early philosophy of nature, Spontaneity = World Soul, and Schelling's editorial response, On the True Concept of Philosophy of Nature. Appearing together, these texts contain Eschenmayer's extensive critique of Schelling's early work and Schelling's own defence that ambivalently appropriates many of Eschenmayer's central concepts and concerns, while also announcing the advent of his new form of metaphysics that was to be published in the May 1801 issue of the same journal as the Presentation of my System of Philosophy.
2. A fierce debate in 1803–4 over the respective capacities of philosophy and faith to explain the emergence of difference from identity, undertaken not just in their correspondence but also in Eschenmayer's Philosophy in its Transition to Non-Philosophy and Schelling's notorious response, Philosophy and Religion.
In the first three chapters of commentary, we focused on various ways philosophers of nature have accounted for the qualitative differences that abound in the natural world. We sought to demonstrate that Schelling's engagement with Eschenmayer on this topic led him to adopt the mathematical concept of ‘potency’ and articulate the metaphysical position of the 1801 Presentation, in which all determinacy in nature is explained in terms of quantitative difference or varying degrees of ‘identity’.
We now turn to what Schelling and Eschenmayer understood to be the crux of their debate: the possibility, significance, and methodology of an idealist philosophy of nature. In Spontaneity = World Soul and his later review of Schelling's First Outline, Eschenmayer argues that idealist philosophy of nature ought to be pursued from a transcendental perspective. In On the True Concept, Schelling rejects this transcendental approach to the philosophy of nature in no uncertain terms and proposes a radical method of abstraction in which the philosopher no longer identifies with the reflective activity of the I but with the activity of nature itself. The full significance of Schelling's proposal will only become apparent in Chapter 5, in which we consider Schelling's theoretical account of abstraction in On the True Concept and the way abstraction is put into practice in the Presentation. At this point, it is necessary to explore the different ways that Eschenmayer and Schelling view the aims of the philosophy of nature and the manner in which these aims are shaped by a fundamental metaphysical disagreement between them. While Eschenmayer locates the original source of nature's activity in the spontaneity of the I, Schelling argues that there is a more fundamental activity in the inorganic world, an activity which only achieves consciousness – that is, only becomes an I – as a result of an atemporal, ontological development of non-conscious being. The former view leads Eschenmayer to understand the philosopher's task as the derivation of the diverse range of natural processes from the original activity of consciousness; the latter view leads Schelling to argue that the philosopher of nature must bracket the structure of consciousness altogether in order to exhibit, in philosophical reason, the activity of nature qua nature.