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This chapter ties together the findings from the previous substantive chapters, uses statistical techniques to unearth common patterns, and explores what the origins and governance of public services in the nineteenth century tell us about today’s welfare state.
This is the main theory chapter. It develops a new typology of public service reforms: vertical dimension of centralization and horizontal dimension of public versus mixed governance. The chapter analyzes the preferences of different political parties and the Church, and it sets out the methodology and chapter structure.