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Sleep is essential for our overall health and wellbeing. Unfortunately, stroke often induces insomnia, which has been shown to impede rehabilitation and recovery of function. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is the treatment of choice for insomnia in the general population and is efficacious both when delivered face-to-face or online. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of blended CBT-I (eCBT-I) in five poststroke participants with insomnia according to DSM-5 criteria.
A randomized multiple baseline design was used to evaluate improvements in total sleep time, sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, nocturnal awakenings and sleep quality. The intervention included six weeks of eCBT-I combined with two face-to-face sessions.
All participants completed the intervention. One participant stopped using the diary, while the other four completed it fully. All five sleep diary measures improved, significantly so for nocturnal awakenings. Moreover, after completion of the treatment, four out of five participants no longer fulfilled DSM-5 criteria for insomnia disorder
This is the first study to show that blended CBT-I is potentially effective in participants with post-stroke insomnia. The findings justify extension to a randomized controlled trial.
To provide an overview of epidemiological studies of dementia among migrant groups in Europe and to estimate their pooled odds ratio (OR) v. the reference population.
Search for articles reporting on incidence or prevalence of dementia among ethnic minorities and migrants in Europe, published before 21 December 2018. We performed several meta-analyses, using a random-effects model, and, when there was no evidence of heterogeneity, a fixed-effects model. We distinguished between all migrants, African-Europeans and Asian-Europeans.
We retrieved five population-based surveys and two health care record studies. The latter included one incidence study, the remainder were prevalence studies. The meta-analysis of all studies yielded a pooled OR, adjusted for age and sex, of 1.73 (95% CI 1.42–2.11) for dementia in all migrant groups. However, the pooled OR of population surveys (3.10; 95% CI 2.12–4.51) was significantly higher than that for the health care record studies (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.80–1.11). The pooled ORs for African-Europeans and Asian-Europeans, based on population surveys, were 2.54 (95% CI 1.70–3.80) and 5.36 (95% CI 2.78–10.31), respectively.
The discrepancy between health care record studies and population surveys suggests that many migrants remain undiagnosed. Migrants from Asia and Africa seem to be at significantly increased risk of dementia in Europe. Since the prevalence rates in their countries of origin are generally not higher than those for natives in Europe, there may be a parallel with the epidemiology of schizophrenia.
Cognitive change is frequently observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the exact profile and extent of cognitive impairments remain unclear due to the clinical heterogeneity of PD and methodological issues in many previous studies. In this study, we aimed to examine the severity, frequency, and profile of cognitive changes in newly diagnosed PD patients over 5 years. At baseline and after 3 and 5 years, a hospital-based sample of PD patients (n = 59) and healthy controls (n = 40) were given neuropsychological tests covering six cognitive domains. Patients showed greater decline over time than healthy controls on all cognitive domains, except for attention. The profile of decline showed that psychomotor speed and memory were most affected. At the individual level 53% of the patients showed more cognitive decline than controls. Age at onset and memory impairment at baseline predicted cognitive decline. Cognitive functions in PD patients show greater decline in most domains than in healthy elderly over the course of 5 years. Due to selection bias as a result of attrition, the actual degree of decline may be greater than reported here. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–14)
The CAMCOG, ADAS-cog, and MMSE, designed to grade global cognitive ability in dementia have inadequate precision and accuracy in distinguishing mild dementia from normal ageing. Adding neuropsychological tests to their scale might improve precision and accuracy in mild dementia. We, therefore, pooled neuropsychological test-batteries from two memory clinics (ns = 135 and 186) with CAMCOG data from a population study and 2 memory clinics (n = 829) and ADAS-cog data from 3 randomized controlled trials (n = 713) to estimate a common dimension of global cognitive ability using Rasch analysis. Item difficulties and individuals’ global cognitive ability levels were estimated. Difficulties of 57 items (of 64) could be validly estimated. Neuropsychological tests were more difficult than the CAMCOG, ADAS-cog, and MMSE items. Most neuropsychological tests had difficulties in the ability range of normal ageing to mild dementia. Higher than average ability levels were more precisely measured when neuropsychological tests were added to the MMSE than when these were measured with the MMSE alone. Diagnostic accuracy in mild dementia was consistently better after adding neuropsychological tests to the MMSE. We conclude that extending dementia specific instruments with neuropsychological tests improves measurement precision and accuracy of cognitive impairment in mild dementia. (JINS, 2012, 18, 314–322)
This controlled prospective study examined the evolution and predictors of cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Consecutive patients diagnosed at baseline with PD (n = 89), established PD (EPD) patients (n = 52) with a mean disease duration of 6.5 years, and healthy control subjects (n = 64) underwent extensive neuropsychological assessment twice, approximately 3 years apart. A standardized regression-based method, normative data, and multivariate normative comparisons were used to assess the cognitive course of PD. Cognitive performance of newly diagnosed patients decreased significantly over time, particularly on measures of psychomotor speed and attention and to a lesser extent on tests of memory, visuospatial skills, and executive functions. About 50% of the patients showed cognitive decline and 9% developed dementia. Similar results were observed in EPD patients. None of the baseline features predicted cognitive change in newly diagnosed patients, whereas age at disease onset and axial impairment (postural and gait disorders) contributed to decline in established patients. We conclude that within few years after diagnosis, PD patients show faster rate of cognitive decline than matched healthy subjects, particularly in domains of attention and psychomotor speed. Selection bias probably led to underestimation of the true extent of cognitive decline in established patients. (JINS, 2009, 15, 426–437.)
A meta-analysis was conducted on 25 longitudinal studies involving 901 initially non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients to examine the magnitude of decline across multiple cognitive domains associated with disease progression. Pooled effect sizes reflecting the standardized difference between baseline and follow-up neuropsychological performance were calculated for 8 cognitive domains using a random-effects model. Relatively small effect sizes were found across all cognitive domains (d = .00 − .40). During a mean follow-up interval of 29 months, significant declines were detected in global cognitive ability (d = .40), visuoconstructive skills (d = .32), and memory (d = .29). Age showed a significant relation with decline in global cognitive ability and memory. Lower educational level was associated with greater decline in all cognitive domains. Studies with longer follow-up intervals yielded larger effect sizes for global cognitive ability. In non-demented PD patients, changes in cognitive functions over time appear to be modest. Educational level, age, and length of the follow-up interval are likely to affect the magnitude of decline in several domains. Methodological flaws, such as selection bias and uncontrolled practice effects, may have caused underestimation of the true extent of decline (JINS, 2007, 13, 920–932.)
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