The dietary flavonoid epicatechin has been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities. The objective of the present study was to investigate the time-dependent regulation by epicatechin on the activity of the main transcription factors (NF-κB, activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear transcription factor erythroid 2p45-related factor (Nrf2)) related to antioxidant defence and survival and proliferation pathways in HepG2 cells. Treatment of cells with 10 μm-epicatechin induced the NF-κB pathway in a time-dependent manner characterised by increased levels of IκB kinase (IKK) and phosphorylated inhibitor of κB subunit-α (p-IκBα) and proteolytic degradation of IκB, which was consistent with an up-regulation of the NF-κB-binding activity. Time-dependent activation of the AP-1 pathway, in concert with enhanced c-Jun nuclear levels and induction of Nrf2 translocation and phosphorylation were also demonstrated. Additionally, epicatechin-induced NF-κB and Nrf2 were connected to reactive oxygen species intracellular levels and to the activation of cell survival and proliferation pathways, being phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) associated to Nrf2 modulation and ERK to NF-κB induction. These data suggest that the epicatechin-induced survival effect occurs by the induction of redox-sensitive transcription factors through a tight regulation of survival and proliferation pathways.