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This research starts from the assumption that work accidents, in addition to fortuitous or individual phenomena, imply social and organizational factors, and highlights the social character of the production of the accident at work. For this reason, this study investigates the living conditions and the ways of workers in the oil and gas industry in Brazil.
To analyze the human factors in the relationship with work accidents on oil platforms from the social dimensions.
It is qualitative research and it has as instruments of collection the focal group and individual interviews with workers and managers of the platforms, participant observation, and documentary analysis.
The research is still being carried out, but some reflections are possible so far: accidents at work depend on the direct or indirect relationship of workers with the work process itself, the modalities of production of work, and management of work. Possible causes underlying the accident are the quality of life and the conceptions of health and safety. Associated with it are social constructs and the multifactorial causes of occupational accidents including the relations between acts and unsafe conditions.
The increase in outsourcing and the decrease in training quality, as well as the prioritization of production, targets the detriment of meeting safety criteria. There is a need to reassess labor management, safety policies, and outsourcing processes. Lack of awareness of the proper use of safety equipment and the organization of the work environment are major causes of work-related accidents. The human factor focuses on the individual, group, organizational, and social dimensions in complex interactions. The identification of social processes between working groups in empirical reality, the influence of elements of culture, organizational management, and their impacts on relations and on safe work performance allows an understanding of social risks.
New therapeutic strategies have been established in chronic wound healing procedures, such as the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). There is currently still uncertainty about the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and real safety of PRP in promoting chronic wound healing and what specific types of chronic wounds can benefit most from its use.
We conducted a systematic review of available scientific literature on the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of PRP compared to placebo, standard care or alternative topical therapies for the treatment of chronic wounds in adults. Overall effect size was estimated through a meta-analysis. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using a Markov model which simulates the costs and health outcomes of individuals for a 5-year horizon, from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service (NHS) for the PRP versus standard treatment in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. The effectiveness measure was quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). We ran extensive sensitivity analyses, including a probabilistic sensitivity analysis.
Sixteen RCTs and four observational studies were included for the effectiveness and safety meta-analysis. The primary outcome was the proportion of chronic wounds completely healed: 143 patients out of 334 (42.8 percent) were cured in the standard treatment arm and 251 patients out of 375 (66.9 percent) in the PRP arm, relative risk (RR) 1.68 (95% CI: 1.22–2.31). It was unclear whether there was a difference in the risk of infection (RR 0.53, 95% CI: 0.10–2.71) or adverse events (RR 1.05, 95% CI: 0.29–3.88) between PRP and standard care. Three studies were considered for the cost-effectiveness analysis. In the base case analysis, PRP led to higher QALYs and healthcare costs with an estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of EUR 41,767 (USD 48,323)/QALY.
PRP treatment is more expensive and more effective than standard treatment. The estimated ICER is above the acceptability threshold in Spain.
In the frame of the COST ACTION ‘EMBOS’ (Development and implementation of a pan-European Marine Biodiversity Observatory System), coverage of intertidal macroalgae was estimated at a range of marine stations along the European coastline (Subarctic, Baltic, Atlantic, Mediterranean). Based on these data, we tested whether patterns in macroalgal diversity and distribution along European intertidal rocky shores could be explained by a set of meteo-oceanographic variables. The variables considered were salinity, sea surface temperature, photosynthetically active radiation, significant wave height and tidal range and were compiled from three different sources: remote sensing, reanalysis technique and in situ measurement. These variables were parameterized to represent average conditions (mean values), variability (standard deviation) and extreme events (minimum and maximum values). The results obtained in this study contribute to reinforce the EMBOS network approach and highlight the necessity of considering meteo-oceanographic variables in long-term assessments. The broad spatial distribution of pilot sites has allowed identification of latitudinal and longitudinal gradients manifested through species composition, diversity and dominance structure of intertidal macroalgae. These patterns follow a latitudinal gradient mainly explained by sea surface temperature, but also by photosynthetically active radiation, salinity and tidal range. Additionally, a longitudinal gradient was also detected and could be linked to wave height.
β-Galactosidases from Kluyveromyces lactis and Kluyveromyces marxianus isolated from artisanal ewes’ milk cheeses, were used to transgalactosylate lactose from cheese whey permeate (WP). The content of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) obtained by transgalactosylation was comparable with that formed using pure lactose as substrate. In order to obtain a mixture with higher prebiotic oligosaccharide content, isomerisation of the transgalactosylated WP was carried out using sodium aluminate as catalyst. The transgalactosylated mixtures at 6 h of reaction contained amounts of prebiotic carbohydrates (tagatose, lactulose, GOS and oligosaccharides derived from lactulose, OsLu) close to 50 g/100 g of total carbohydrates for all the strains tested, corresponding to 322 g prebiotics/kg whey permeate. Thus, the suitability of this methodology to produce mixtures of dietary non-digestible carbohydrates with prebiotic properties from WP has been demonstrated, which is interesting for the food industry since it increases the value and the applicability of this by-product from cheese manufacture.
The goal of the present study was to identify the cognitive processes that underlie lexical ambiguity resolution in a second language (L2). We examined which cognitive factors predict the efficiency in accessing subordinate meanings of L2 homonyms in a sample of highly-proficient, Spanish–English bilinguals. The predictive ability of individual differences in (1) homonym processing in the L1, (2) working memory capacity and (3) sensitivity to cross-language form overlap were examined. In two experiments, participants were presented with cognate and noncognate homonyms as either a prime in a lexical decision task (Experiment 1) or embedded in a sentence (Experiment 2). In both experiments speed and accuracy in accessing subordinate meanings in the L1 was the strongest predictor of speed and accuracy in accessing subordinate meanings in the L2. Sensitivity to cross-language form overlap predicted performance in lexical decision while working memory capacity predicted processing in sentence comprehension.
The aim of this study was to explore the association between pathological gambling (PG) and anger by assessing whether psychopathology and personality are related to PG and to evaluate gender differences. The sample comprised 71 PGs and 37 healthy controls. Anger, psychopathology and personality were assessed with the STAXI-2, SCL-90-R and TCI-R respectively. Gender did not affect anger expression after stratifying by diagnostic condition (p > .05). Among PG patients, anger, psychopathology and personality measures were correlated with good effect-size (r > .30). Scores in the Anger Temperament (B = 0.21, p = .038) and Anger External-Expression (B = 0.27, p = .029) scales were positively associated with PG severity scores. Anger expression in PG should be considered in future treatment programs.
ApoA-IV is a protein constituent of HDL particles; the gene coding for it is a member of the ApoA-I–ApoC-III–ApoA-IV cluster. To investigate the effects of the quantity and the degree of saturation of dietary lipid on the long-term response of this Apo, and on the hypothetical coordinated regulation of the cluster in vivo, pigs were fed isoenergetic, cholesterol-free, low-lipid or lipid-enriched diets (containing either extra olive oil (rich in MUFA) or sunflower oil (rich in n−6 PUFA)) for 42 d. In animals fed on the control diet, ApoA-IV was mainly associated with plasma lipoproteins. An increase in plasma ApoA-IV concentration, mainly in the lipoprotein-free fraction, was induced by the lipid-enriched diets, independent of the degree of saturation of the fatty acids involved. The latter diets also led to increases in hepatic ApoA-I, ApoA-IV and ApoC-III mRNA levels, more so with the sunflower oil-rich diet. The present results show that porcine plasma ApoA-IV levels and their association with lipoproteins are very sensitive to increases in dietary lipids, independent of the degree of fatty acid saturation. Furthermore, hepatic expression of RNA appears to be coordinated along with that of the other members of the gene cluster.
Studies concerning time perception lack a validated assessment tool
and a consensual “gold-standard” measure. Moreover, the
present evidence suggests modification of timing with aging. This study
aimed to develop and validate a neuropsychological tool to measure time
perception and to study temporal perception with aging. Eighty-six
healthy participants, aged 15–90 years old, were asked to
verbally estimate and produce empty intervals signaled by auditory
beeps, of 7-, 32-, and 58-s duration. Two tests were used as
“gold-standards”: estimation of the duration of time
necessary to draw a clock (“clock time”) and estimation of
the duration of neuropsychological evaluation (“global
time”). Results showed a correlation between estimation and
production (p < .01) and a correlation between estimation
or production and “global time” (p < .01). The
correlation between either estimation or production and age (p
< .01), suggested a faster “internal-clock” in the older
participants. However, this finding lost significance when controlled
for literacy. The results suggest that these tests are potentially a
useful tool to measure subjective perception of time. They also
corroborate the hypothesis of a change in subjective time perception
with aging. It was not possible to conclude if this effect was a
specific result of aging or biased by the interference of literacy.
(JINS, 2004, 10, 332–341.)
Since the McCabe report, growing indirect evidence has accumulated to indicate the implication of immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated inner-ear disease (IMIED). A clinical study of a group of patients affected by this condition was performed in order to characterize the immune group, based on a recently reported profile, and compared with the vascular, viral and idiopathic aetiologies of sudden deafness. Patients affected by immune-mediated inner-ear disease had the best and the earliest recovery rate of hearing (p = 0.0028 and p = 0.017, respectively). However, this group of patients also had the higher rate of recurrence (p = 0.034), supporting the typical clinical course of the autoimmune disorders. On the basis of the results the criteria used in the diagnosis of the sudden presentation of the immune-mediated inner ear disease could be accepted leading to the characterization of this condition. Likewise, the role of the supporting cells in the pathogenesis of the IMIED is discussed.
We have used differential scanning calorimetry
to determine the effect of low concentrations (C
= 0–2 M) of the osmolyte sarcosine on the Gibbs energy
changes (ΔG) for the unfolding of hen-egg-white
lysozyme, ribonuclease A, and ubiquitin, under the same
buffer and pH conditions. We have also computed this effect
on the basis of the additivity assumption and using published
values of the transfer Gibbs energies for the amino acid
side chains and the peptide backbone unit. The values thus
predicted for the slope ∂ΔG/∂C
agree with the experimental ones, but only if the unfolded
state is assumed to be compact (that is, if the accessibility
to solvent of the unfolded state is modeled using segments
excised from native structures). The additivity-based calculations
predict similar ∂ΔG/∂C
values for the three proteins studied. We point out that,
to the extent that this approximate constancy of ∂ΔG/∂C
holds, osmolyte-induced increases in denaturation temperature
will be larger for proteins with low unfolding enthalpy
(small proteins that bury a large proportion of apolar
surface). The experimental results reported here are consistent
with this hypothesis.
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