Dietary fibre sources are fermented by the gut flora to yield short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) together with degraded phytochemicals and plant nutrients. Butyrate, a major SCFA, is potentially chemoprotective by suppressing the growth of tumour cells and enhancing their differentiation. Conversely, it could lead to a positive selection pressure for transformed cells by inducing glutathione S-transferases (GST) and enhancing chemoresistance. Virtually nothing is known about how butyrate's activities are affected by other fermentation products. To investigate such interactions, a variety of dietary fibre sources was fermented with human faecal slurries in vitro, analysed for SCFA, and corresponding SCFA mixtures were prepared. HT29 colon tumour cells were treated for 72 h with individual SCFA or complex samples. The growth of cells, GST activity, and chemoresistance towards 4-hydroxynonenal were determined. Fermentation products inhibited cell growth more than the corresponding SCFA mixtures, and the SCFA mixtures were more active than butyrate, probably due to phytoprotectants and to propionate, respectively, which also inhibit cell growth. Only butyrate induced GST, whereas chemoresistance was caused by selected SCFA mixtures, but not by all corresponding fermentation samples. In summary, fermentation supernatant fractions contain compounds that: (1) enhance the anti-proliferative properties of butyrate (propionate, phytochemical fraction); (2) do not alter its capacity to induce GST; (3) prevent chemoresistance in tumour cells. It can be concluded that fermented dietary fibre sources are more potent inhibitors of tumour cell growth than butyrate alone, and also contain ingredients which counteract the undesired positive selection pressures that higher concentrations of butyrate induce in tumour cells.