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The aim of this paper is to review evidence on Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) administered via telephone (IPT-T).
We conducted a systematic review of studies published between January 1, 1990 and June 30, 2020, assessing the efficacy of IPT administered by phone, using PubMed.
Originally, we found 60 papers; the final selection led to 13 papers. Six studies were performed using a randomized clinical trial methodology (6/13, 46.2%), three were prospective open-label not randomized studies (3/13, 15.7%), three were pilot studies (3/13, 23.1%), and one was a feasibility/acceptance study (1/13, 7.7%). The number of subjects included in the studies ranged between 14 and 442 (mean: 140.0 ± 124.9), for a total of 1850 patients. The mean age of the enrolled subjects was 47.8 ± 9.3 years (range: 27.4-70.4). Thirty-four different instruments were utilized. Qualitative synthesis was conducted only on randomized controlled trials (RCTs), namely on six studies. RCTs were almost all of good quality (mean score/standard deviation of the RCT-Psychotherapy Quality Rating Scale omnibus rating: 5.6 ± 1.2 points; range: 3-7).
IPT-T showed response rates similar to IPT administered in the usual way. Results are limited by small samples sizes, selection bias of the less severe depressed patients, and the heterogeneity of rating scales.
The present paper compared vitamin D levels in adult patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and explored possible correlations with patients’ characteristics.
Fifty outpatients with OCD, according to DSM-5 criteria, were included and assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRDS).
All the patients except one showed lower vitamin D levels than normative values (>30 nm/L). Vitamin D values of the whole sample were negatively correlated with Y-BOCS total, compulsion subscale, and some items’ scores, specifically “interference from obsessions,” “distress associated with obsessions,” and “time spent on compulsions”. The same relationships were detected in men, while women showed negative correlations between vitamin D levels and Y-BOCS compulsion subscale and “resistance to compulsions,” “degree of control of compulsions,” “insight” item scores.
Our findings would indicate that vitamin D might be involved in the pathophysiology of OCD, and that it is possibly related to the severity of the disorder and to typical symptoms, with some sex-related peculiarities. Further studies are necessary to support or not our findings and to ascertain the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in patients with OCD.
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