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To evaluate the Canadian Diet History Questionnaire I (C-DHQ I) food list and to adapt the US DHQ II for Canada using Canadian dietary survey data.
Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls reported by adults in a national Canadian survey were analysed to create a food list corresponding to C-DHQ I food questions. The percentage contribution of the food list to the total survey intake of seventeen nutrients was used as the criterion to evaluate the suitability of the C-DHQ I to capture food intake in Canadian populations. The data were also analysed to identify foods and to modify portion sizes for the C-DHQ II.
The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) – Cycle 2.2 Nutrition (2004).
Adults (n 20 159) who completed 24 h dietary recalls during in-person interviews.
Four thousand five hundred and thirty-three foods and recipes were grouped into 268 Food Groups, of which 212 corresponded to questions on the C-DHQ I. Nutrient intakes captured by the C-DHQ I ranged from 79 % for fat to 100 % for alcohol. For the new C-DHQ II, some food questions were retained from the original US DHQ II while others were added based on foods reported in CCHS and foods available on the Canadian market since 2004. Of 153 questions, 143 were associated with portion sizes of which fifty-three were modified from US values. Sex-specific nutrient profiles for the C-DHQ II nutrient database were derived using CCHS data.
The C-DHQ I and II are designed to optimize the capture of foods consumed by Canadian populations.
To assess the validity and reliability of the most recent adaptation of Block's full-diet food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) among a sample of Canadian women.
Participants completed a self-administered FFQ (FFQ1), two unannounced 24-hour recalls (weekday and weekend) and a second FFQ (FFQ2) between October 2003 and February 2004. FFQs and recalls were analysed for 32 nutrients using Block Dietary Data Systems and the University of Minnesota's Nutrient Data System. Mean and median intakes were computed, along with crude and deattenuated Pearson correlation coefficients between FFQ1 and the average of two recalls (validity) and between FFQ1 and FFQ2 (reliability).
A random population-based sample (n = 166) of women aged 25 to 74 years.
One hundred and fifteen (69%) women completed FFQ1, 96 completed FFQ1 and both recalls, and 93 completed both FFQs, about 56 days apart. Mean intakes were similar for most nutrients. FFQ reliability was high, with Pearson correlation coefficients having a median of 0.75, ranging from 0.57 to 0.90 (macronutrients) and from 0.65 to 0.88 (micronutrients from supplements and food). FFQ validity was moderate to high, with deattenuated Pearson correlation coefficients having a median of 0.59, ranging from 0.11 to 0.73 (macronutrients) and from 0.50 to 0.76 (micronutrients from supplements and food). Our micronutrient correlations were similar to or higher than those of other studies that included supplements. Two correlations <0.40 were associated with fats.
The validity and reliability of this full-diet version of the Block FFQ were moderate to high, supporting its use in future studies among Canadian women.
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