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Field studies were conducted near Sparr, FL, in 2001 and 2002 to evaluate the response of ‘Valencia 102’ grown for the green peanut market (or boiling peanut) to preemergence (PRE) and postemergence (POST) applications of herbicides registered for dry peanut production (roasted market). Green peanut exhibited excellent tolerance to most PRE and POST treatments. There was minimal injury (8%) from flumioxazin applications when evaluated early season in both years, and peanut quickly recovered. Norflurazon caused chlorosis to peanut foliage (23%) in both years. Yield reduction was observed in 2001 for flumioxazin (15%), metolachlor (20%), and norflurazon (41%) compared with the untreated control. However, there were no yield reductions for any of the PRE treatments in 2002. Bentazon + paraquat early postemergence (EPOST) followed by (fb) 2,4-DB POST, bentazon + paraquat EPOST fb clethodim POST, and imazapic EPOST caused ≤5% injury and had no effect on yield in either year.
During routine use of fluazifop-P-butyl for grass control, county extension agents in Georgia observed control of bristly starbur in grower fields. Experiments to characterize the activity of fluazifop-P-butyl on bristly starbur were conducted under greenhouse conditions in Gainesville, FL, during 2001 and 2002. Fluazifop-P-butyl activity was characterized as a function of herbicide rate and time after application. Commercially available fluazifop-P-butyl was compared to technical fluazifop-P-butyl as a function of herbicide rate and bristly starbur height. Finally, injury to bristly starbur was evaluated when clethodim, diclofop, fluazifop-P-butyl, haloxyfop, quizalofop-p, and sethoxydim were applied at two growth stages. Fluazifop-P-butyl caused >90% injury to bristly starbur with all other post graminicides displaying <8% injury. Nonlinear regression revealed a sigmoidal response of bristly starbur injury to fluazifop-P-butyl. Estimates for 50 and 90% bristly starbur injury (I50 and I90) were 0.07 and 0.14 kg ai/ha, respectively. There was no difference in activity of technical and commercial fluazifop-P-butyl formulations. There was a differential response of bristly starbur to fluazifop-P-butyl over time as a function of plant height at the time of treatment. However, 14 days after treatment (DAT) all treatments displayed >89% injury. Bristly starbur response to fluazifop-P-butyl was similar to injury associated with contact-type herbicides.
In 1846 in Louisville, Kentucky, John Banvard, a self-taught Missouri painter, exhibited his Three-Mile Painting, a panorama of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, painted from hundreds of direct observations and sketches he had executed over a period of many years along the riverbanks. The painting was exhibited by means of a giant pair of rollers upon which the canvas was wound and unwound. Following a successful run in Louisville, the exhibition drew large crowds in Boston and New York City before Banvard capped his triumph with a European tour. In a promotional description of the painting, printed in Boston in 1847 to generate interest in the exhibit, many endorsements testified to the painting's authenticity, including one signed by over one hundred captains and other officers of steamboats who had examined the painting and declared it “correct.” That authenticity and “correctness” were measures of artistic achievement testifies to the premium placed on verisimilitude in art that served as a record of discovery and observation along the American frontier.
“We live in an age of wonders!” exclaims a character in Henry James's The Bostonians (1886). And so it must have seemed to any American who could read the newspapers, which thrived, in the 1880s, on the business of proclaiming marvels. In The Bostonians one of the “wonders” is Miss Verena Tarrant, whose precocious and hypnotic speaking powers on the subject of women's rights — together with a pretty face and trim figure — succeeded in selling out the Boston Music Hall. Other wonders of the decade were less comely but more enduring: the lightbulb, the electric generator (which so awed Henry Adams), the telephone, the automobile, motion pictures, the linotype machine, the Kodak camera. The hawking of Verena Tarrant outside the Music Hall followed the American pattern of packaging, promoting, and generally celebrating (in a chauvinistic spirit) all manner of sensational feats, new technologies, and even writers and painters who caught the public's fancy. One of these was, of course, Mark Twain, who successfully promoted his own works through direct subscription sales. Also included among the sensational feats of the period were the trompe l'oeil (trick of the eye) still-life paintings by William Michael Harnett, who was heralded in a feature article that appeared in the New York News at the end of the decade. The headline ran as follows:
Painted Like Real Things. The Man Whose Pictures Are a Wonder and a Puzzle. How He Began and the Success He Has Met With — Poverty Forced Him to Earn a Living in the Line in Which He Excells.
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