Research with laboratory species suggests that meals can be terminated by peripheral signals carried to brain feeding centres via hepatic vagal afferents, and that these signals are affected by oxidation of fuels. Pre-gastric fermentation in ruminants greatly alters fuels, allowing mechanisms conserved across species to be studied with different types and temporal absorption of fuels. These fuels include SCFA, glucose, lactate, amino acids and long-chain fatty acid (FA) isomers, all of which are absorbed and metabolised by different tissues at different rates. Propionate is produced by rumen microbes, absorbed within the timeframe of meals, and quickly cleared by the liver. Its hypophagic effects are variable, likely due to its fate; propionate is utilised for gluconeogenesis or oxidised and also stimulates oxidation of acetyl-CoA by anapleurosis. In contrast, acetate has little effect on food intake, likely because its uptake by the ruminant liver is negligible. Glucose is hypophagic in non-ruminants but not ruminants and unlike non-ruminant species, uptake of glucose by ruminant liver is negligible, consistent with the differences in hypophagic effects between them. Inhibition of FA oxidation increases food intake, whereas promotion of FA oxidation suppresses food intake. Hypophagic effects of fuel oxidation also vary with changes in metabolic state. The objective of this paper is to compare the type and utilisation of fuels and their effects on feeding across species. We believe that the hepatic oxidation theory allows insight into mechanisms controlling feeding behaviour that can be used to formulate diets to optimise energy balance in multiple species.