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In the product design realm, designers often use presentations to convey certain ideas about a product or a specific stage of the design process. The popular forms of presentation include verbal pitching, two-dimensional drawing, and prototyping. The clients, investigators, and other audiences rely on such presentations to evaluate an idea. Popular idea evaluation assessment tools, such as the consensual assessment technique, utilize such interactions. On the other hand, numerous pieces of literature state that the audiences are heavily influenced by the quality of presentation when evaluating the worth of the product being presented. In this study, we examine if the audience is able to discriminate between the quality of the presentation and the quality of the idea being presented. A total of 613 ideas were evaluated over a 4-year period during a specific product design class at different phases in the design process. The result shows that no matter the kind of presentation tool used, the presentation quality ratings and the idea value ratings had a very strong positive correlation despite the explicit instructions to reviewers to separate presentation quality from concept quality. Our additional analysis shows that such a pattern did not change during the different phases of the design process.
This study investigated the characteristics of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) and their association with current and future cognitive functions.
A cohort of 209 community-dwelling individuals without dementia aged 47–90 years old was recruited for this 3-year study. Participants underwent neuropsychological and clinical assessments annually. Participants were divided into SMCs and non-memory complainers (NMCs) using a single question at baseline and a memory complaints questionnaire following baseline, to evaluate differential patterns of complaints. In addition, comprehensive assessment of memory complaints was undertaken to evaluate whether severity and consistency of complaints differentially predicted cognitive function.
SMC and NMC individuals were significantly different on various features of SMCs. Greater overall severity (but not consistency) of complaints was significantly associated with current and future cognitive functioning.
SMC individuals present distinctive features of memory complaints as compared to NMCs. Further, the severity of complaints was a significant predictor of future cognition. However, SMC did not significantly predict change over time in this sample. These findings warrant further research into the specific features of SMCs that may portend subsequent neuropathological and cognitive changes when screening individuals at increased future risk of dementia.
On April 15, 2013, two improvised explosive devices (IEDs) exploded at the Boston Marathon and 264 patients were treated at 26 hospitals in the aftermath. Despite the extent of injuries sustained by victims, there was no subsequent mortality for those treated in hospitals. Leadership decisions and actions in major trauma centers were a critical factor in this response.
The objective of this investigation was to describe and characterize organizational dynamics and leadership themes immediately after the bombings by utilizing a novel structured sequential qualitative approach consisting of a focus group followed by subsequent detailed interviews and combined expert analysis.
Across physician leaders representing 7 hospitals, several leadership and management themes emerged from our analysis: communications and volunteer surges, flexibility, the challenge of technology, and command versus collaboration.
Disasters provide a distinctive context in which to study the robustness and resilience of response systems. Therefore, in the aftermath of a large-scale crisis, every effort should be invested in forming a coalition and collecting critical lessons so they can be shared and incorporated into best practices and preparations. Novel communication strategies, flexible leadership structures, and improved information systems will be necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality during future events. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:489–495)
Intakes of micronutrient-rich foods are low among Indian women of reproductive age. We investigated whether consumption of a food-based micronutrient-rich snack increased markers of blood micronutrient concentrations when compared with a control snack. Non-pregnant women (n 222) aged 14–35 years living in a Mumbai slum were randomised to receive a treatment snack (containing green leafy vegetables, dried fruit and whole milk powder), or a control snack containing foods of low micronutrient content such as wheat flour, potato and tapioca. The snacks were consumed under observation 6 d per week for 12 weeks, compliance was recorded, and blood was collected at 0 and 12 weeks. Food-frequency data were collected at both time points. Compliance (defined as the proportion of women who consumed ≥ 3 snacks/week) was >85 % in both groups. We assessed the effects of group allocation on 12-week nutrient concentrations using ANCOVA models with respective 0-week concentrations, BMI, compliance, standard of living, fruit and green leafy vegetable consumption and use of synthetic nutrients as covariates. The treatment snack significantly increased β-carotene concentrations (treatment effect: 47·1 nmol/l, 95 % CI 6·5, 87·7). There was no effect of group allocation on concentrations of ferritin, retinol, ascorbate, folate or vitamin B12. The present study shows that locally sourced foods can be made into acceptable snacks that may increase serum β-carotene concentrations among women of reproductive age. However, no increase in circulating concentrations of the other nutrients measured was observed.
We describe an investigation of 3 postoperative Gordonia bronchialis sternal infections. A nurse anesthetist was identified as the source of the outbreak, her scrubs likely becoming contaminated by her home washing machine. The outbreak ended after disposal of the implicated washing machine. Domestic laundering of surgical scrubs may need reevaluation.
Abstract. The gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered (GLBT) population is a good example of a demographic group that has been understudied because it is difficult to develop a subsample of sufficient size from typical national samples. Here we exploit the extraordinary size of a 2006 online election day survey (with about 35,000 respondents) to examine how the GLBT community behaves politically. While it will surprise no one that this community bestowed little support on Stephen Harper's Conservative party in the 2006 federal election, the factors behind such a consistent vote pattern are not adequately understood. In order to shed more light on the voting behaviour of the GLBT electorate, we develop a socio-demographic profile of the group, and explore three explanatory angles: 1) salience of issue campaign dynamics, given that the same-sex marriage issue was prominent in 2006; 2) ideological and attitudinal proclivities; and 3) strategic considerations.
Résumé. La population gaie, lesbiennes, bisexuels et transgenres (GLBT) est un exemple d'un groupe démographique qui a été peu étudié, car il est difficile de développer un sous-échantillon de taille suffisante à partir d'échantillons nationaux. Ici, nous exploitons la taille extraordinaire d'une enquête enligne du jour du scrutin fédérale du 2006 (avec environ 35.000 répondants) d'examiner comment la communauté GLBT se comporte politiquement. Bien qu'il ne surprendra personne que cette communauté accordé peu d'appui sur Parti conservateur de Stephen Harper lors de l'élection fédérale de 2006, les facteurs qui expliquent un tel motif ne sont pas bien compris. Afin de jeter plus de lumière sur le comportement de vote de l'électorat GLBT, nous développons un profil sociodémographique de cette groupe, et d'explorer trois angles explicatives: 1) pertinence de la question du mariage de même sexe, 2) tendances idéologiques, et 3) des considérations stratégiques.
Abstract. An invariant feature of constituency election campaigns is the literature mail drop, usually a one-page leaflet or card left at the door profiling the candidate and appealing for electoral support. In this article, we report on a field experiment designed to assess the effects of such mail drops. The experiment was conducted during the 2007 Ontario provincial election campaign in the constituency of Cambridge and entailed distributing literature for the Green party candidate in that constituency. After randomly assigning constituency polls to treatment and control groups, and delivering the Green candidate's partisan literature only to the selected treatment group polls, we compared the candidate's support levels in the treated polls with those in the control group. Our research detected a modest effect associated with the literature drop. The effect was largely limited to constituency neighbourhoods fitting at least part of the Green party's traditional demographic, that is, those with higher than average socio-economic status.
Résumé. Un trait commun des campagnes électorales au niveau des circonscriptions est la distribution de publipostages. Il s'agit habituellement d'un dépliant d'une page déposé dans la boîte aux lettres et donnant le profil du candidat tout en invitant les gens à voter pour lui. Notre article porte sur une expérience que nous avons menée pour évaluer les effets de ces publipostages sur le vote. Au cours de la campagne des élections provinciales de l'Ontario, en 2007, dans la circonscription de Cambridge. nous avons distribué des documents sur le candidat du Parti vert de cette circonscription. Les bureaux de scrutin ont étés divisés, au hasard, en deux groupes, soit un groupe de traitement et un groupe de contrôle. Nous avons distribué les documents seulement aux électeurs du premier groupe. Après l'élection, nous avons comparé les niveaux d'appui au candidat vert dans les deux groupes. Les résultats montrent un effet modeste associé à la distribution des publipostages. L'effet observé était en grande partie limité aux quartiers répondant, en partie du moins, au profil démographique traditionnellement favorable aux partis écologiques, soit les quartiers ayant un statut socio-économique plus élevé que la moyenne.
The third quarter of the twentieth century was a golden age for labor in the advanced industrial countries, characterized by rising incomes, relatively egalitarian wage structures, and reasonable levels of job security. The subsequent quarter-century has seen less positive performance along a number of these dimensions. This period has instead been marked by rapid globalization of economic activity that has brought increased insecurity to workers. The contributors to this volume distinguish four explanations for this historic shift. These include 1) rapid development of new technologies; 2) global competition for both business and labor; 3) deregulation of industry with more reliance on markets; and 4) increased immigration of workers, especially unskilled workers, from developing countries. In addition to analyzing the causes of these trends, the contributors also investigate important consequences, ranging from changes in collective bargaining and employment relations to family formation decisions and incarceration policy.
Seen in the rearview mirror, the third quarter of the twentieth century was a golden age for labor in the United States, Europe, and Japan. Unemployment was low and earnings and employment growth were strong. Employment relations were shaped by an implicit agreement between employers and unions in which workers traded wage moderation for expanding employment opportunities. All was not “sweetness and light,” to be sure. One must guard against idealizing the past and recognize that distance can distort. Recall the warning that graces the rearview mirrors on recent-vintage U.S. cars: “Caution: Objects may be closer than they appear.” Still, it is not too much of a distortion to argue that the majority of workers in the United States, Europe, and Japan were confident that their economic circumstances would improve from year to year.
Sometime in the fourth quarter of the century, this situation began to change. After President Ronald Reagan's firing of striking air traffic controllers, employer resistance to unions took off and the power of labor, already on a downward trend, went into rapid decline. In the United States, wages for male workers stagnated and health and pension benefits for many workers began to erode. In Japan, the winding down of miracle growth in the 1970s and then the onset of a decade-long slump at the beginning of the 1990s challenged the system of lifetime employment. As growth rates slowed in Europe and joblessness rose, labor-market arrangements once lauded for their stability were increasingly disparaged for their rigidity.