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Henri Bergson and William James were great admirers of each other, and James seemed to think he got valuable ideas from Bergson. But early critics were right to see in Bergson the antithesis of pragmatism. Unfolding this antithesis is a convenient way to study important concepts and innovations in Bergson's philosophy. I concentrate on his ideas of duration and intuition, and show how they prove the necessity of going beyond pragmatism. The reason is because knowledge itself goes beyond the utilitarian limitations in which pragmatism confines it. Knowledge is more than utility, more than adaptation, more than pragmatism, because our cognitive powers prove capable of more than any naturally selected service to survival.
Research with laboratory species suggests that meals can be terminated by peripheral signals carried to brain feeding centres via hepatic vagal afferents, and that these signals are affected by oxidation of fuels. Pre-gastric fermentation in ruminants greatly alters fuels, allowing mechanisms conserved across species to be studied with different types and temporal absorption of fuels. These fuels include SCFA, glucose, lactate, amino acids and long-chain fatty acid (FA) isomers, all of which are absorbed and metabolised by different tissues at different rates. Propionate is produced by rumen microbes, absorbed within the timeframe of meals, and quickly cleared by the liver. Its hypophagic effects are variable, likely due to its fate; propionate is utilised for gluconeogenesis or oxidised and also stimulates oxidation of acetyl-CoA by anapleurosis. In contrast, acetate has little effect on food intake, likely because its uptake by the ruminant liver is negligible. Glucose is hypophagic in non-ruminants but not ruminants and unlike non-ruminant species, uptake of glucose by ruminant liver is negligible, consistent with the differences in hypophagic effects between them. Inhibition of FA oxidation increases food intake, whereas promotion of FA oxidation suppresses food intake. Hypophagic effects of fuel oxidation also vary with changes in metabolic state. The objective of this paper is to compare the type and utilisation of fuels and their effects on feeding across species. We believe that the hepatic oxidation theory allows insight into mechanisms controlling feeding behaviour that can be used to formulate diets to optimise energy balance in multiple species.
The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that equine growth hormone (eGH), in combination with insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I), influences positively in vitro nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of equine oocytes. Cumulus–oocyte complexes were recovered from follicles that were < 25 mm in diameter, characterized by morphology and were allocated randomly as follow: (a) control (no additives); (b) 400 ng/ml eGH; (c) 200 ng/ml IGF-I; (d) eGH + IGF-I; and (e) eGH + IGF-I + 400 ng/ml anti-IGF-I antibody. Oocytes were matured for 30 h at 38.5°C in air with 5% CO2 and then stained with 10 μg/ml propidium iodide (PI) to evaluate nuclear status and 10 μg/ml Lens culinaris agglutinin-fluorescein complex (FITC-LCA) to assess cortical granule migration by confocal microscopy. The proportion of immature oocytes that developed to the metaphase II (MII) stage in the eGH + IGF-I group (15 of 45) was greater than in the groups that were treated only with IGF-I (7 of 36, p = 0.03). Oocytes that reached MII in the control group (20 of 56; 35.7%) showed a tendency to be different when compared with eGH + IGF-I group (15 of 45; 33.3%, p = 0.08). The treated group that contained anti-IGF-I (15 of 33; 45.4%) decreased the number of oocytes reaching any stage of development when compared with eGH (47 of 72; 65.3%) and eGH + IGF-I (33 of 45; 73.3%) groups (p = 0.05) when data from MI and MII were combined. We concluded that the addition of eGH to in vitro maturation (IVM) medium influenced the in vitro nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation of equine oocytes. The use of GH and IGF-I in vitro may represent a potential alternative for IVM of equine oocytes.
The Fourier-Kelvin Stellar Interferometer (FKSI) is a mission concept for a spacecraft-borne imaging and nulling interferometer for the near to mid-infrared spectral region. FKSI is a scientific and technological pathfinder to the Darwin and Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) missions and will be a high angular resolution system complementary to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). There are four key scientific issues the FKSI mission is designed to address. These are: 1.) characterization of the atmospheres of the known extra-solar giant planets, 2.) assay of the morphology of debris disks to look for resonant structures characteristic of the presence of extrasolar planets, 3.) study of circumstellar material around a variety of stellar types to better understand their evolutionary state, and in the case of young stellar systems, their planet forming potential, and 4.) measurement of detailed structures inside active galactic nuclei. We report results of simulation studies of the imaging capabilities of the FKSI, current progress on our nulling testbed, results from control system and residual jitter analysis, and selection of hollow waveguide fibers for wavefront cleanup.
This study aimed to describe clinical findings, pedigrees, and possible environmental risk factors in children with clinical anophthalmos and remnant microphthalmos in either eye in southern India. Twenty-four children (14 male, 10 female; mean age 10.3 years, age range 1.3 to 18 years,) were recruited from schools for the blind, hospitals, and community-based rehabilitation programmes in Andhra Pradesh, India, over 1 year. Family members were examined, and mothers interviewed. Fifteen children had anophthalmos and nine had remnant microphthalmos in one or both eyes. Twelve children had associated systemic findings, of which six were major and six were minor abnormalities. Information on consanguinity was available in 19 children, 12 of whom had consanguineous parents. Five children had a positive family history. Two mothers had a history of night blindness, and one had a history of pesticide exposure during pregnancy. High rates of consanguinity suggest a genetic recessive aetiology.
A sample of Kansas farms was used to examine the impact of risk and specialization on mean financial performance. Mean financial performance was hypothesized to be influenced by risk, age of the operator, percentage of acres owned, financial efficiency, leverage, specialization, and farm size. Risk, age of operator, financial efficiency, and farm size had the largest impacts on mean financial performance. Specializing in swine, dairy, or crop production increased mean financial performance, while specializing in beef production decreased mean financial performance. Farms with both crops and a livestock enterprise (beef, swine, or dairy) tended to have less variability in financial performance.
Kripke's Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language has enlivened recent discussion of Wittgenstein's later philosophy. Yet it is quite possible to disengage his interpretive thesis from its supporting argumentation. Doing so leaves one with an intriguing sceptical argument which Kripke first powerfully advances, then tries to halt. But contrary to the impression his argument may leave, Kripke's solution and the position it concedes to the Sceptic are deeply allied. Here I shall demonstrate their common assumption, and on that basis argue that Kripke's solution begs the Sceptic's question. Furthermore, I believe we can live with the Sceptic. The sceptical argument can be turned into a reasonable contribution to a kind of nominalism in the philosophy of meaning and truth.
Robert Nozick's adherence to Locke's puzzling doctrine about punishment can seem strange. Why does Nozick follow Locke in claiming that individuals in a state of nature have a right to punish any wrongdoer?
Here reflection on this question proceeds by stages to a conclusion that Nozick as well as any other state-of-nature theorist of similar stripe should find disturbing. For, as we shall see (in section 1), what Nozick describes as the general right of a minimal state to punish cannot arise within a state of nature from the more plausible right of individuals to punish only those who harm them.
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