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Populations of native North American parasitoids attacking Agrilus Curtis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) species have recently been considered as part of an augmentative biological control programme in an attempt to manage emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, a destructive wood-boring beetle discovered in North America in 2002. We evaluate trapping methods to detect and monitor populations of two important native larval parasitoids, Phasgonophora sulcata Westwood (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) and Atanycolus Förster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) species, attacking emerald ash borer in its introduced range. We found that purple prism traps captured more P. sulcata than green prism traps, yellow pan traps, and log samples and thus were considered better for detecting and monitoring P. sulcata populations. Trap type did not affect the number of captures of Atanycolus species. Surprisingly, baiting prism traps with a green leaf volatile or manuka oil did not significantly increase captures of P. sulcata or Atanycolus species. Based on these results, unbaited purple prism traps would be optimal for sampling these native emerald ash borer parasitoids in long-term management programmes.
In Chapter 7 we were essentially concerned with the first three factors in the Drake equation that were introduced in Section 6.1.1, namely, the rate R at which suitable stars are formed, the probability pp of planets forming around a suitable star, and nE the average number of suitable planets in a habitable zone. We now move on to consider how we could determine the next factor, pl, the probability of life app earing on a suitable planet in a habitable zone.
In this chapter we concentrate on the detection of life that is based on complex carbon compounds and liquid water, i.e. carbon-liquid water life. We thus concentrate on life that resembles life on Earth. In doing so we do not assume that alien life is based on the same carbon molecules as terrestrial life. It might use mirror image isomers of some molecules used by terrestrial life, a carbon compound other than DNA to carry genetic information, or carbon compounds other than proteins to carry out the various functions performed by proteins in terrestrial life. But it is still carbon-liquid water life. Only in Chapter 9 will we free ourselves of this selfimposed (but reasonable) carbon-liquid water restriction. There, in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) we will search for evidence of technological civilization regardless of the chemical basis of the life-forms.
In searching for signs of carbon-liquid water life, we are at least looking for something that we know to be possible. Another justification stems from fundamental chemistry. No element other than carbon has anywhere near the same facility to form compounds of sufficient complexity, diversity and versatility to supp ort the many processes of life (Section 1.1.2). Few liquids app roach water in its ability to act as both a solvent and a reactant. Ammonia is a possible alternative to water at low temperatures (at a pressure of 1 bar it is liquid from 195 K to 240 K), but it is pure speculation whether a low-temperature form of life could use ammonia in place of water. A third justification is that we know how to detect evidence of carbon-liquid water life. Apart from SETI, we have a poorer idea of how to detect life that has an entirely different chemical basis from ours, particularly as we are restricted to detection from afar.
‘To the bereaved nothing but the return of the lost person can bring true comfort; should what we provide fall short of that it is felt almost as an insult.’
Bereavement is not a pathological process, but can lead to a significant mortality and morbidity. Some children may suffer significant psychological consequences (Pettle-Michael & Lansdown, 1986) but depression is rare (Pfeffer et al, 2000). The evidence for the efficacy or usefulness of therapeutic work is limited (Harrington & Harrison, 1999; Currier et al, 2007). Research suggests that positive outcomes from therapeutic work are more likely to be achieved if certain groups of children are selected and provided ‘timely’ treatment (Currier et al, 2007). The corollary of this is that many children do well with family and community support and never need to see child mental health services (Dyregov, 2008).
Indications for bereavement work
Children may need support at times of family bereavement. There are a number of reasons the impact of bereavement on the development of children might be more pronounced.
• Bereavement may be associated with circumstances in which the normal supportive family influences are severely hampered; such circumstances include parental mental illness (Van Eerdewegh et al, 1985), catastrophic parental bereavement responses, and emotionally abusive or neglecting parents (Elizur & Kaffman, 1983; Bifulco et al, 1987).
• Severe psychological trauma associated with the death, including parental suicide (Wright & Partridge, 1999; Pfeffer et al, 2000; Department of Health, 2008).
• Repeated bereavement.
• Prolonged disruption to the child's life.
• Family system changes (Wasserman, 1988).
• Extreme circumstances such as war (Goldstein et al, 1997).
Childhood bereavement services look at the effects of bereavement on children in a number of ways.
• Diagnostically: bereavement can lead to emotional or behavioural problems that have social or educational effects and that represent a diagnosable entity.
• Adult mental health: there may be effects on the parenting available to the child before or after the bereavement.
• Child protection: bereavement may upset parents’ emotional or physical care of a child.
• Systemically: there may be systemic effects that represent risk factors for the child.
• Developmentally: the circumstances surrounding the bereavement may damage the child's development.
• Attributionally: beliefs and attributions regarding the death, in either the child or the family, may be damaging.
‘Life is short, the craft long to learn, opportunity fleeting, experiment deceptive and judgement difficult. Not only must the physician be ready to do his duty but the patient, the attendants, and external circumstances must all conduce to a cure.’
The routine problems presenting to a CAMHS are likely to be addressed by those working at Tier 2 by an individual specialist mental health professional working with the problem. The demands of this everyday CAMHS work require all the specialist skills available in the service. No professional, unless at a very inexperienced stage, should not be available for Tier 2 work. To some extent the expenditure of energy on the development of the more high-profile ‘specialist’ Tier 3 teams is secondary and needs to be carefully managed to maintain availability of Tier 2 specialist provision. Treatments such as CBT are often offered by Tier 3 teams, although service members with relevant skills will do this as part of their Tier 2 work. The system needs to be coordinated and managed so that there is equity of access for required services at the most effective tier.
Requisites of Tier 2
‘Critical mass’ of staff
Meeting the needs of the community and providing a comprehensive range of services requires a critical mass of CAMHS staff with a multidisciplinary skill mix and a clear recognition of professional function.
Assessment represents the first stage of any therapeutic relationship and professionals working at Tier 2 need a clear model of assessment.
Continuum of care
The Tier 2 professional, who may link up with Tier 1 workers, will also be in a position to access and make use of Tier 3 and Tier 4 provision where required. This highlights the importance of communication both within CAMHS and with other agencies, as well as underpinning the principle that all disciplines should be involved in this area of service provision.
Training and supervision
Staff of all disciplines require access to affordable and relevant training. Training budgets are limited and unequal in their distribution. It may be that units develop alternative funding strategies to support less well-resourced disciplines. In-house training initiatives and multi-agency and multidisciplinary training programmes are effective and keep costs down. Professional supervision is a prerequisite for effective professional functioning.
To describe the burden of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) Enterobacteriaceae in veterans with spinal cord injury or disorder (SCI/D), to identify risk factors for ESBL acquisition, and to assess impact on clinical outcomes
Retrospective case-case-control study
PATIENTS AND SETTING
Veterans with SCI/D and utilization at a Veterans’ Affairs medical center from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013.
Patients with a positive culture for ESBL Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, or Proteus mirabilis were matched with patients with non-ESBL organisms by organism, facility, and level of care and to uninfected controls by facility and level of care. Inpatients were also matched by time at risk. Univariate and multivariate matched models were assessed for differences in risk factors and outcomes.
A total of 492 cases (62.6% outpatients) were matched 1:1 with each comparison group. Recent prior use of fluoroquinolones and prior use of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins were independently associated with ESBL compared to the non-ESBL group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77–3.84; P<.001 for fluoroquinolones and aOR, 3.86; 95% CI, 2.06–7.25; P<.001 for third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins) and the control group (aOR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.29–3.43; P = .003 for fluoroquinolones; and aOR, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.56–7.06; P=.002 for third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins). Although there were no differences in mortality rate, the ESBL group had a longer post-culture length of stay (LOS) than the non-ESBL group (incidence rate ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.13–1.63; P=.001).
All SCI/D patients with ESBL were more likely to have had recent exposure to fluoroquinolones or third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, and hospitalized patients were more likely to have increased post-culture LOS. Programs targeted toward reduced antibiotic use in SCI/D patients may prevent subsequent ESBL acquisition.
C46 was a Commission of the Executive Committee of the IAU under Division XII (Union-Wide Activities), then after 2012 under Division C (Education, Outreach, and Heritage). It was the only commission dealing exclusively with astronomy education; a previous Commission 38 (Exchange of Astronomers), which allocated travel grants to astronomers who needed them, and a Working Group on the Worldwide Development of Astronomy, have been absorbed by Commission 46.
C46 is a Commission of the Executive Committee of the IAU under Division XII Union-Wide Activities. Aiming at improvement of astronomy education and research at all levels worldwide (through the various projects it initiates),maintains, develops, as well as through the dissemination of information. C46 has 332 members and it was managed by the Organizing Committee, formed by the Commission President (Rosa M. Ros, from Spain), the Vice-Presiden (John Hearnshaw, from New Zealand), the Retiring President (Magda Stavinschi, from Romania), the Vice-President of the IAU (George Miley, from Netherland) and the PG chairs:
•Worldwide Development of Astronomy WWDA: John Hearnshaw
•Teaching Astronomy for Development TAD: Edward Guinan and Laurence A. Marshall
•International Schools for Young Astronomers ISYA; chair: Jean-Pierre de Greve
•Network for Astronomy School Education NASE: Rosa M. Ros and Beatriz Garcia
•Public Understanding at the times of Solar Eclipses and transit Phenomena PUTSE: Jay Pasachoff
The agricultural land classification (ALC) of England and Wales is a formal method of assessing the quality of agricultural land and guiding future land use. It assesses several soil, site and climate criteria and classifies land according to whichever is the most limiting. A common approach is required for calculating the necessary agroclimatic parameters over time in order to determine the effects of changes in the climate on land grading. In the present paper, climatic parameters required by the ALC classification have been re-calculated from a range of primary climate data, available from the Meteorological Office's UKCP09 historical dataset, provided as 5 km rasters for every month from 1914 to 2000. Thirty-year averages of the various agroclimatic properties were created for 1921–50, 1931–60, 1941–70, 1951–80, 1961–90 and 1971–2000. Soil records from the National Soil Inventory on a 5 km grid across England and Wales were used to determine the required soil and site parameters for determining ALC grade. Over the 80-year period it was shown that the overall climate was coolest during 1951–80. However, the area of land estimated in retrospect as ‘best and most versatile (BMV) land’ (Grades 1, 2 and 3a) probably peaked in the 1951–80 period as the cooler climate resulted in fewer droughty soils, more than offsetting the land which was downgraded by the climate being too cold. Overall there has been little change in the proportions of ALC grades among the six periods once all 10 factors (climate, gradient, flooding, texture, depth, stoniness, chemical, soil wetness, droughtiness and erosion) are taken into account. This is because it is rare for changes in climate variables all to point in the same direction in terms of ALC. Thus, a reduction in rainfall could result in higher grades in wetter areas but lead to lower classification in drier areas.
Episodic memory deficits are a core feature of neurodegenerative disorders. Muscarinic M1 receptors play a critical role in modulating learning and memory and are highly expressed in the hippocampus. We examined the effect of GSK1034702, a potent M1 receptor allosteric agonist, on cognitive function, and in particular episodic memory, in healthy smokers using the nicotine abstinence model of cognitive dysfunction. The study utilized a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design in which 20 male nicotine abstained smokers were tested following single doses of placebo, 4 and 8 mg GSK1034702. Compared to the baseline (nicotine on-state), nicotine abstinence showed statistical significance in reducing immediate (p=0.019) and delayed (p=0.02) recall. GSK1034702 (8 mg) significantly attenuated (i.e. improved) immediate recall (p=0.014) but not delayed recall. None of the other cognitive domains was modulated by either nicotine abstinence or GSK1034702. These findings suggest that stimulating M1 receptor mediated neurotransmission in humans with GSK1034702 improves memory encoding potentially by modulating hippocampal function. Hence, selective M1 receptor allosteric agonists may have therapeutic benefits in disorders of impaired learning including Alzheimer's disease.
To assess the impact on psychiatric in-patient bed use of a new personality disorder service that uses two psychoanalytical models: mentalisation-based treatment (MBT) and the service user network (SUN). The number of psychiatric bed days used by patients attending each of the three arms of the service model (SUN, 3-day MBT, 2-day MBT) was collated using the electronic patient records system. Bed use in the 6 months and 12 months before each patient started treatment was compared with bed use in the same periods after starting treatment.
Overall, statistical analysis revealed bed use to be significantly reduced by 6 months of treatment, and the reduction continued to prove significant at 12 months. Comparison between subgroups found no significant difference in bed use between patients attending the MBT programme and patients attending the SUN project at 6 months, but patients on the 3-day MBT programme exhibited a significantly greater reduction in bed use at 6 months compared with patients on the 2-day MBT programme.
Intervention had a statistically significant effect overall on reducing bed use, which we suggest is linked to an improvement in patients' functioning, and is maintained at 6 months and 12 months of treatment. The lacking difference between the SUN and MBT components of the model raises questions regarding the best allocation of resources and the longer-term effects on bed use, to be answered by further study.
Current energy demands and future energy needs are a growing industry which at present attracts a large amount of research and investment of which nuclear energy is an integral part. Eight new nuclear stations are proposed to be developed in the UK over the next ten years to meet this demand. In order for nuclear energy to sustain growth and development, nuclear decommissioning of first and second generation power stations needs to be addressed in the U.K. and worldwide. Presently the UK has 36 graphite moderated reactors as a result of the UK military and civil programs, which over the next twenty years will close. This will result in ∼99’000 tonnes of irradiated graphite waste for which no current national decommissioning strategy exists. The main issues associated with this waste are the large volume and activation products associated. By far the greatest inventory is from 3H and 14C. An EU Euroatom FP7 Program; CARBOWASTE was established in 2008 with the aim of developing treatment and disposal options for graphite.
This research is based within CARBOWASTE, the main objectives are to understand the mechanisms involved in the production, location and removal of radioisotopes from nuclear graphite. Computed X-ray Tomography (CT) will be used in order to quantify the initial porosity in conjunction with thermal treatment (ex situ) in order to eventually identify the location of 14C within the matrix of irradiated graphite, through the preferential chemically controlled oxidation of graphite. Unirradiated Pile Grade A graphite samples have been laser and manually marked in order align the samples prior to and post thermal treatment to determine the degree of porosity changes and weight loss under a range of thermal oxidation parameters.
Background: Dementia places a huge demand on healthcare services; however, a large proportion of the cost is borne by informal caregivers. With the number of people affected by dementia set to increase in the future, there is a need for research to consider the effects of interventions on informal caregivers as well as on the individuals with dementia. This paper seeks to systematically review the existing evidence on the cost-effectiveness of interventions to support informal caregivers of people with dementia residing in the community.
Methods: A range of electronic databases was searched. Studies were included if both costs and outcome measures for informal caregivers of people with dementia residing in the community were reported for an intervention. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions were included. Quality of study was assessed using the Drummond ten-item checklist for economic evaluations and results were presented through narrative synthesis.
Results: Twelve studies were included in the review; of these only four reported a significant difference in the outcome measure for caregivers.
Conclusions: At present few published studies report costs in enough detail to provide evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions for supporting caregivers. Future trials need to collect caregiver data alongside patient data in order to increase the evidence base for intervention effectiveness. Further research is required to establish the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches.
Though Pluto, and the far-flung depths of the Solar System, is the focus of this book, it is essential that Pluto is placed in the context of the planetary system that it inhabits – our Solar System. In the first place, this is because Pluto is just one of a large and varied number of bodies that orbit the Sun, and cannot be treated as an isolated body in space. Secondly, much of the material in this chapter is needed to support and enhance your understanding of subsequent chapters.
But before we get to the Solar System, I start by examining its cosmic neighbourhood: a vast assemblage of stars called the Galaxy, which we see in the sky as the Milky Way.
A JOURNEY INTO OUR GALAXY
The Sun, which is at the centre of the Solar System, is one of about two hundred thousand million stars that make up the Galaxy. From extensive observations made from Earth it is clear that it has a beautiful form that, face-on, is something like that in Figure 1.1.
The stars, of various kinds, plus tenuous interstellar gas and dust, often woven into stunning forms, are concentrated into a disc highlighted by spiral arms (Figure 1.1). In our Galaxy the disc is about 100 000 light years in diameter (see Box 1.1), and most stars are in a thin sheet about 1000 light years thick – roughly the same ratio of diameter to thickness as a CD. This sheet is called the thin disc.
So far, I've said very little about the surfaces and atmospheres of Pluto and its satellites, and for interiors I've given only the mean global densities and a broad indication of global compositions. In this chapter the compositions will be discussed in more detail, and internal models will be introduced.
I start with surfaces and atmospheres, which are clearly of intrinsic interest, but also because they provide clues and constraints about the interiors of Pluto and Charon. Very little is known about Nix and Hydra, therefore almost nothing is said here about these tiny satellites.
In Chapter 6 you will see that what we learn about Pluto and its satellites helps us to learn about other objects in the outer Solar System, notably the Kuiper belt objects.
First, some basic science. How do we obtain information about the surfaces and atmospheres of distant bodies? The answer is through measuring their albedos (reflectivities), which has already been discussed in Section 3.1, and by measuring their electromagnetic reflection and emission spectra.
REFLECTION AND EMISSION SPECTRA
The albedo of a body gives us information averaged over a wide range of wavelengths in solar radiation, particularly visible wavelengths. The reflectance spectrum is the reflectivity versus wavelength, and provides much more detailed information about a body. A reflectance spectrum is obtained with a device called a spectrometer, the essential components of which are illustrated in a simple way in Figure 5.1.