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A preliminary evaluation of gaseous radiocarbon (14C) behavior under geological repository conditions for Italian radioactive high level waste-long-lived and intermediate level waste disposal has been performed. Although in Italy there is still no defined project for a geological disposal facility, current work may support future safety assessment studies for a hypothetical future repository in deep salt rock. In the Italian context of radioactive waste, the percentage of 14C bearing waste to be disposed in a possible geological repository is low; irradiated graphite is the most important radiological source. Data about the radiological inventory has been collected to simulate production and migration of gaseous 14C in a hypothetical geological repository. Three different conceptual models have been developed and simulated. The first model has considered a preliminary evaluation of the radiological impact referred to the whole inventory; the second and third model have evaluated the impact only due to the irradiated graphite. A preliminary sensitivity analysis has been carried out, highlighting the importance of geometry and of distribution coefficients (Kd) in materials used to seal the disposal underground facility. Results show the possibility to correlate the Kd values, the volume and the location of the sealing materials to the amount of 14C migrating toward the surface.
The present study tested the combination of an established and a validated food-choice research method (the ‘fake food buffet’) with a new food-matching technology to automate the data collection and analysis.
The methodology combines fake-food image recognition using deep learning and food matching and standardization based on natural language processing. The former is specific because it uses a single deep learning network to perform both the segmentation and the classification at the pixel level of the image. To assess its performance, measures based on the standard pixel accuracy and Intersection over Union were applied. Food matching firstly describes each of the recognized food items in the image and then matches the food items with their compositional data, considering both their food names and their descriptors.
The final accuracy of the deep learning model trained on fake-food images acquired by 124 study participants and providing fifty-five food classes was 92·18 %, while the food matching was performed with a classification accuracy of 93 %.
The present findings are a step towards automating dietary assessment and food-choice research. The methodology outperforms other approaches in pixel accuracy, and since it is the first automatic solution for recognizing the images of fake foods, the results could be used as a baseline for possible future studies. As the approach enables a semi-automatic description of recognized food items (e.g. with respect to FoodEx2), these can be linked to any food composition database that applies the same classification and description system.
A controversy at the 2016 IUCN World Conservation Congress on the topic of closing domestic ivory markets (the 007, or so-called James Bond, motion) has given rise to a debate on IUCN's value proposition. A cross-section of authors who are engaged in IUCN but not employed by the organization, and with diverse perspectives and opinions, here argue for the importance of safeguarding and strengthening the unique technical and convening roles of IUCN, providing examples of what has and has not worked. Recommendations for protecting and enhancing IUCN's contribution to global conservation debates and policy formulation are given.
As part of the International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition (ITASE) project, a traverse was carried out from November 2001 to January 2002 through Terre Adélie, George V Land, Oates Land and northern Victoria Land, for a total length of about 1875 km. The research goal is to determine the latitudinal and longitudinal variability of physical, chemical and isotopic parameters along three transects: one west–east transect (WE), following the 2150m contour line (about 400 km inland of the Adélie, George V and Oates coasts), and two north–south transects (inland Terre Adélie and Oates Coast–Talos Dome–Victoria Land). The intersection between the WE and Oates Coast–Victoria Land transects is in the Talos Dome area. Along the traverse, eight 2 m deep snow pits were dug and sampled with a 2.5 cm depth resolution. For spatial variability, 1 m deep integrated samples were collected every 5 km (363 sampling sites). In the snow-pit stratigraphy, pronounced annual cycles, with summer maxima, were observed for nssSO42–, MSA, NO3– and H2O2. The seasonality of these chemical trace species was used in combination with stable-isotope stratigraphy to derive reliable and temporally representative snow-accumulation rates. The study of chemical, isotopic and accumulation-rate variability allowed the identification of a distribution pattern which is controlled not only by altitude and distance from the sea, but also by the complex circulation of air masses in the study area. In particular, although the Talos Dome area is almost equidistant from the Southern Ocean and the Ross Sea, local atmospheric circulation is such that the area is strongly affected only by the Ross Sea. Moreover, we observed a decrease in concentration of aerosol components in the central portion of the WE transect and in the southern portion of the Talos Dome transect; this decrease was linked to the higher stability of atmospheric pressure due to the channelling of katabatic winds.
To describe trends in the epidemiology of healthcare-associated Infections (HAIs) in pediatric/neonatal intensive care units (ICUs) and to evaluate risk factors and impact of multidrug resistance in children admitted to ICUs.
Multicenter, retrospective, cohort study with a nested case-control study conducted from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2014.
Three tertiary care pediatric hospitals in Italy and Brazil with a total of 103 ICU beds.
Inclusion criteria were admission to ICU during the study period, age at onset less than 18 years, and microbiologically confirmed HAI.
A total of 538 HAIs in 454 children were included; 93.3% of patients had comorbidities. Bloodstream infections were the leading pattern (45.4%). The cumulative incidence of HAI was 3.6/100 ICU admissions and the crude 30-day fatality rate was 5.7/1,000 admissions. The most frequently isolated pathogens were Enterobacteriaceae, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Forty-four percent of isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR). Two multivariate logistic regressions were performed. Factors independently associated with an MDR-HAI were country, previous antibiotics, transplantation, major surgery, and colonization by an MDR strain. Factors independently associated with 30-day case fatality were country, previous transplantation, fungal infection, bloodstream infection, lower respiratory tract infection, and infection caused by MDR strains.
Infection control and prevention can limit the spread of MDR strains and improve outcomes. Targeted surveillance programs collecting neonatal and pediatric HAI/bloodstream infection data and outcomes would allow global benchmarking. The next step is to identify methods to monitor key HAIs and integrate these into affordable intervention programs.
We applied three statistical classification techniques—linear discriminant analysis (LDA), logistic regression, and random forests—to three astronomical datasets associated with searches for interstellar masers. We compared the performance of these methods in identifying whether specific mid-infrared or millimetre continuum sources are likely to have associated interstellar masers. We also discuss the interpretability of the results of each classification technique. Non-parametric methods have the potential to make accurate predictions when there are complex relationships between critical parameters. We found that for the small datasets the parametric methods logistic regression and LDA performed best, for the largest dataset the non-parametric method of random forests performed with comparable accuracy to parametric techniques, rather than any significant improvement. This suggests that at least for the specific examples investigated here accuracy of the predictions obtained is not being limited by the use of parametric models. We also found that for LDA, transformation of the data to match a normal distribution led to a significant improvement in accuracy. The different classification techniques had significant overlap in their predictions; further astronomical observations will enable the accuracy of these predictions to be tested.
In this study, we examined the Candrive baseline data (n = 928; aged 70 to 94; 62% were men) to determine whether driver characteristics (i.e., age, gender, height, weight, BMI) and certain functional abilities (i.e., Rapid Paced Walk, Timed Up and Go) influenced the types of vehicles driven. There were significant differences with respect to type of vehicle and mean driver age (F = 3.58, p = 0.003), height, (F = 13.32, p < 0.001), weight (F = 14.31, p < 0.001), and BMI (F = 4.40, p = 0.001). A greater proportion of drivers with osteoporosis (χ2 = 21.23, p = 0.020) and osteo/rheumatoid arthritis (χ2 = 21.23, p = 0.020) drove small and medium-sized cars compared to larger ones. Further research is needed to examine older driver-vehicle interactions, and the relationship to demographics and functional abilities, given the vulnerability of this age group to automotive-related injuries.
Electronic healthcare records provide information about patient care over time which not only affords the opportunity to improve patient care directly through effective monitoring and identification of care requirements but also offers a unique platform for both clinical and service-model research essential to the longer-term development of the health service. The quality of the recorded data can, however, be variable and can compromise the validity of data use both for primary and secondary purposes.
In order to explore the challenges and benefits of and approaches to recording high quality primary care electronic records, a Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) sponsored workshop was held at the Society of Academic Primary Care (SAPC) conference in 2014 with the aim of engaging GPs and other data users.
The workshop was held as a structured discussion, led by an expert panel and focused around three questions: (1) What are the data quality priorities for clinicians and researchers? How do these priorities differ or overlap? (2) What challenges might GPs face in provision of good data quality both for treating their patients and for research? Do these aims conflict? (3) What tools (such as data metrics and visualisations or software components) could assist the GP in improving data quality and patient management and could this tie in with analytical processes occurring at the research stage?
The discussion highlighted both overlap and differences in the perceived data quality priorities and challenges for different user groups. Five key areas of focus were agreed upon and recommendations determined for moving forward in improving quality.
The importance of good high quality electronic healthcare records has been set forth along with the need for a practical user-considered and collaborative approach to its improvement.
It is widely accepted that stars do not form in isolation but result from the fragmentation of molecular clouds, which in turn leads to star cluster formation. Over time, clusters dissolve or are destroyed by interactions with molecular clouds or tidal stripping, and their members become part of the general field population. Star clusters are thus among the basic building blocks of galaxies. In turn, star cluster populations, from young associations and open clusters to old globulars, are powerful tracers of the formation, assembly, and evolutionary history of their parent galaxies. Although their importance (e.g., in mapping out the Milky Way) had been recognised for decades, major progress in this area has only become possible in recent years, both for Galactic and extragalactic cluster populations. Star clusters are the observational foundation for stellar astrophysics and evolution, provide essential tracers of galactic structure, and are unique stellar dynamical environments. Star formation, stellar structure, stellar evolution, and stellar nucleosynthesis continue to benefit and improve tremendously from the study of these systems. Additionally, fundamental quantities such as the initial mass function can be successfully derived from modelling either the Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams or the integrated velocity structures of, respectively, resolved and unresolved clusters and cluster populations. Star cluster studies thus span the fields of Galactic and extragalactic astrophysics, while heavily affecting our detailed understanding of the process of star formation in dense environments. This report highlights science results of the last decade in the major fields covered by IAU Commission 37: Star clusters and associations. Instead of focusing on the business meeting - the out-going president presentation can be found here: http://www.sc.eso.org/gcarraro/splinter2015.pdf - this legacy report contains highlights of the most important scientific achievements in the Commission science area, compiled by 5 well expert members.
The relationship between work and family is considered with an emphasis on policy solutions. Australian policy is a case example in the context of international trends. A mismatch between policy initiatives and familial and personal priorities constitutes a new social risk associated with demographic and sociocultural development. Contemporary trends, both nationally and internationally, evidence solutions to the “problem of demographic aging” by adopting a form of economic instrumentalism. This restricts legitimate age identities to those associated with work and work-related activity. When applied to family life, such a focus runs the risk of reducing policy interest in intergenerational engagement to unpaid care roles, while personal development and age-related life priorities are ignored. The need for cultural adaptation to population aging is becoming accepted in policy debate and is considered here as an effective response to the personal, social, and economic risks of population aging and associated impacts on family life.
The business session for Commission 37 was held on 24 August 2012 at the IAU General Assembly in Beijing. The meeting was attended by about a dozen members of our Comission, including President Carraro, VP de Grijs and several committee members. We introduced ourselves and then went through a powerpoint presentation first prepared by outgoing President Elmegreen and revised by incoming President Carraro. The contents of the powerpoint presentation are given in this summary.
Flexible discretization techniques for the approximative solution of coupled wave propagation problems are investigated. In particular, the advantages of using non-matching grids are presented, when one subregion has to be resolved by a substantially finer grid than the other subregion. We present the non-matching grid technique for the case of a mechanical-acoustic coupled as well as for acoustic-acoustic coupled systems. For the first case, the problem formulation remains essentially the same as for the matching situation, while for the acoustic-acoustic coupling, the formulation is enhanced with Lagrange multipliers within the framework of Mortar Finite Element Methods. The applications will clearly demonstrate the superiority of the Mortar Finite Element Method over the standard Finite Element Method both concerning the flexibility for the mesh generation as well as the computational time.
Objective: The 1994 earthquake that struck Northridge, California, led to the closure of the Veterans Health Administration Medical Center at Sepulveda. This article examines the earthquake's impact on the mental health of an existing cohort of veterans who had previously used the Sepulveda Veterans Health Administration Medical Center.
Methods: From 1 to 3 months after the disaster, trained interviewers made repeated attempts to contact participants by telephone to administer a repeated measures follow-up design survey based on a survey that had been done preearthquake. Postearthquake data were obtained on 1144 of 1800 (64%) male veterans for whom there were previous data. We tested a predictive latent variable path model of the relations between sociodemographic characteristics, predisaster physical and emotional health measures, and postdisaster emotional health and perceived earthquake impact.
Results: Perceived earthquake impact was predicted by predisaster emotional distress, functional limitations, and number of health conditions. Postdisaster emotional distress was predicted by preexisting emotional distress and earthquake impact. The regression coefficient from earthquake impact to postearthquake emotional distress was larger than that of the stability coefficient from preearthquake emotional distress. Postearthquake emotional distress also was affected indirectly by preearthquake emotional distress, health conditions, younger age, and lower socioeconomic status.
Conclusions: The postdisaster emotional health of veterans who experienced greater earthquake impact would have likely benefited from postdisaster intervention, regardless of their predisaster emotional health. Younger veterans and veterans with generally poor physical and emotional health were more vulnerable to greater postearthquake emotional distress. Veterans of lower socioeconomic status were disproportionately likely to experience more effects of the disaster because they had more predisaster emotional distress, more functional limitations, and a greater number of health conditions. Because many veterans use non–Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care providers for at least some of their health needs, future disaster planning for both VA and non-VA providers should incorporate interventions targeted at these groups.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2011;5:S220-S226)
In this paper we first give a brief overview of the MOCVD of high temperature superconductors and consider the general requirements of a precursor. We then present results for deposition from Y containing precursors and compare apparent enthalpies of sublimation and deposition activation energies with values in the literature. The problem of Ba containing precursors are briefly reviewed and results given for the sublimation of and deposition from a new stable and volatile precursor. Finally, some comments are made about possible deposition mechanisms.