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The aim of this research was to examine effects of cigarette smoking on depression and anxiety among children and adolescents (youth) with early onset schizophrenia and/or psychosis. Data were obtained from the national evaluation of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program (CMHS Program). Cubic mixed models were used to analyze the longitudinal data with seven waves (over 3 years). Results showed that 29% youth (N = 117, mean age at intake = 13.9) smoked cigarettes in any prior 6-month period. Cigarette users had high levels of initial and sustained depression and anxiety throughout the seven waves. Predicted depression and anxiety scores of cigarette users and non-users showed that cigarette users had higher but more stable states of anxiety and depression. Results suggested that youth with EOS might use cigarettes for mood regulation. Implications of results for psychologists and counsellors in schools are discussed.
Infections cause morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The association between nursery design and nosocomial infections is unclear.
To determine whether rates of colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), late-onset sepsis, and mortality are reduced in single-patient rooms.
Retrospective cohort study.
NICU in a tertiary referral center.
Our NICU is organized into single-patient and open-unit rooms. Clinical data sets including bed location and microbiology results were examined over 29 months. Differences in outcomes between bed configurations were determined by χ2 and Cox regression.
All NICU patients.
Among 1,823 patients representing 55,166 patient-days, single-patient and open-unit models had similar incidences of MRSA colonization and MRSA colonization-free survival times. Average daily census was associated with MRSA colonization rates only in single-patient rooms (hazard ratio, 1.31; P=.039), whereas hand hygiene compliance on room entry and exit was associated with lower colonization rates independent of bed configuration (hazard ratios, 0.834 and 0.719 per 1% higher compliance, respectively). Late-onset sepsis rates were similar in single-patient and open-unit models as were sepsis-free survival and the combined outcome of sepsis or death. After controlling for demographic, clinical, and unit-based variables, multivariate Cox regression demonstrated that bed configuration had no effect on MRSA colonization, late-onset sepsis, or mortality.
MRSA colonization rate was impacted by hand hygiene compliance, regardless of room configuration, whereas average daily census affected only infants in single-patient rooms. Single-patient rooms did not reduce the rates of MRSA colonization, late-onset sepsis, or death.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36(10):1173–1182
The present study examined food shopping behaviours, particularly distance to grocery shop, and exposure to discrimination.
Cross-sectional observational study utilizing data from a community survey, neighbourhood food environment observations and the decennial census.
Three communities in Detroit, Michigan, USA.
Probability sample of 919 African-American, Latino and white adults in 146 census blocks and sixty-nine census block groups.
On average, respondents shopped for groceries 3·1 miles (4·99 km) from home, with 30·9 % shopping within 1 mile (1·61 km) and 22·3 % shopping more than 5 miles (8·05 km) from home. Longer distance to shop was associated with being younger, African-American (compared with Latino), a woman, higher socio-economic status, lower satisfaction with the neighbourhood food environment, and living in a neighbourhood with higher poverty, without a large grocery store and further from the nearest supermarket. African-Americans and those with the lowest incomes were particularly likely to report unfair treatment at food outlets. Each mile (1·61 km) increase in distance to shop was associated with a 7 % increase in the odds of unfair treatment; this relationship did not differ by race/ethnicity.
The study suggests that unfair treatment in retail interactions warrants investigation as a pathway by which restricted neighbourhood food environments and food shopping behaviours may adversely affect health and contribute to health disparities. Efforts to promote ‘healthy’ and equitable food environments should emphasize local availability and affordability of a range of healthy food products, as well as fair treatment while shopping regardless of race/ethnicity or socio-economic status.
To evaluate the impact of nutrition education promoting lower dietary fat on the overall diet quality in children using a multidimensional index that measures nutrient and food intakes in relation to US dietary recommendations.
Prospective cohort study with two intervention and two control groups. Children with elevated low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were randomized to one of two intervention groups or an at-risk control group. The intervention children received either the parent–child autotutorial (PCAT) programme, a 10-week home-based self-instruction nutrition education programme, or nutrition counselling from a registered dietitian. Children with non-elevated plasma cholesterol formed the not-at-risk control group. Dietary and blood data were collected at baseline and at 3 months.
Paediatric practices in suburbs north of Philadelphia, PA.
Two hundred and twenty-seven 4–10-year-old children with elevated LDL cholesterol between the 80th and 98th percentiles, and 76 age- and gender-matched children with non-elevated plasma cholesterol, were studied.
Children who received PCAT or counselling significantly improved their overall diet quality (−0.6 and −0.4 change in diet quality index (DQI) scores) compared with at-risk control children. Children who received either form of nutrition education were more likely to meet the recommendations for three components of the DQI (total fat, saturated fat, sodium) (OR <1.7), but did not improve their intakes of three components of the DQI (vegetables and fruits, complex carbohydrates, calcium) at 3 months.
Nutrition education promoting lower dietary fat improved children's overall diet quality. However, several dietary behaviours important for long-term health remained unchanged.
Based on the analysis of assemblages from the French sites of Pech de l'Azé I, La Quina, and Combe-Capelle has, a model of stone-tool resharpening is proposed for Middle Paleolithic notched tools. This model is based on the observation that tools with a larger number of notches have greater mean blank lengths irrespective of their typological designation. This pattern is then used to help investigate the relationship between raw material availability and tool reuse. Our results indicate that the number of notches found on a tool is a function of both the size of the tool blank and the availability of raw material.
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