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A single-frequency pulsed holmium-doped yttrium lithium fluoride (Ho:YLF) amplifier pumped by a Tm-doped fiber laser was demonstrated. The seed was an injection-seeded Q-switched Ho:YLF laser. The output energy from the single-frequency pulsed amplifier was 24.2 mJ, with a pulse width of 250 ns at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 100 Hz. The energy stability during 30 min was improved to 1% after the single-frequency pulsed Ho:YLF laser was amplified. The line width of the single-frequency pulsed spectrum of the Ho:YLF amplifier was 2.81 MHz. The single-frequency pulsed Ho:YLF amplifier can be applied to differential absorption lidar (DIAL), since its output spectrum is around the P12 CO2 absorption line.
No studies have reported on how to relieve distress or relax in medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study aimed to establish which relaxation technique, among six, is the most feasible in first-line medical health workers wearing medical protective equipment.
This was a two-step study collecting data with online surveys. Step 1: 15 first-line medical health workers were trained to use six different relaxation techniques and reported the two most feasible techniques while wearing medical protective equipment. Step 2: the most two feasible relaxation techniques revealed by step 1 were quantitatively tested in a sample of 65 medical health workers in terms of efficacy, no space limitation, no time limitation, no body position requirement, no environment limitation to be done, easiness to learn, simplicity, convenience, practicality, and acceptance.
Kegel exercise and autogenic relaxation were the most feasible techniques according to step 1. In step 2, Kegel exercise outperformed autogenic relaxation on all the 10 dimensions among the 65 participants while wearing medical protective equipment (efficacy: 24 v. 15, no space limitation: 30 v. 4, no time limitation: 31 v. 4, no body position requirement: 26 v. 4, no environment limitation: 30 v. 11, easiness to learn: 28 v. 5, simplicity: 29 v. 7, convenience: 29 v. 4, practicality: 30 v. 14, acceptance: 32 v. 6).
Kegel exercise seems a promising self-relaxation technique for first-line medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment among COVID-19 pandemic.
High-current-density electropulsing was applied to a coarse-grained Cu–Zn alloy with two phases of α-phase and β′-phase. It was found that with an electropulsing treatment, ultrafine-grained (UFG) microstructure could be formed in the α-phase, but could not be formed in the β-phase. The results indicated that the formation of UFG microstructure was dependent on solid-state phase transformation. The main reason for the formation of UFG microstructure by electropulsing treatment resulted from the effect of a decrease in thermodynamic barrier and enhancement of nucleation rate in a current-carrying system, but not from the high heating and cooling rate during electropulsing treatment. The bulk UFG samples prepared by electropulsing treatment were free of porosity and contamination and had no large microstrain. It was reasonable to anticipate that a new method might be developed to produce ideal bulk UFG samples directly from the conventional coarse-grained materials by application of electropulsing.
High current electropulsing was applied to a low-carbon steel in the solid state. The relationship between grain size and experimental conditions was revealed. It was found that the ultrafine-grained (UFG) microstructure could be formed when electric current density, heating rate, and cooling rate all were high. The UFG samples prepared by applying electropulsing were free of porosity and contamination, and had no large microstrain. Also, their tensile strength was dramatically enhanced over that of their coarse-grained counterparts, without a decrease in ductility. The mechanism for grain refinement and formation of the UFG microstructure was discussed. It is proposed that the effect of a decrease in thermodynamic barrier and enhancement of nucleation rate in a current-carrying system cannot be neglected.
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