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Animal studies have suggested that mushroom intake can alleviate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, the association between mushroom intake and NAFLD is unknown in humans. We aimed to investigate the association of mushroom intake with NAFLD among Chinese adults. This is a cross-sectional study of 24 236 adults (mean (standard deviation) age: 40·7 (sd 11·9) years; 11 394 men (47·0 %)). Mushroom intake was assessed via a validated FFQ. Newly diagnosed NAFLD was identified based on the results of annual health examinations, including ultrasound findings and a self-reported history of the disease. Multiple logistic models were used to examine the association between mushroom intake and NAFLD. The prevalence of newly diagnosed NAFLD was 19·0 %. Compared with those consuming mushrooms less frequently (≤1 time/week), the fully adjusted OR of newly diagnosed NAFLD were 0·95 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·05) for those consuming 2–3 times/week and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·92) for those consuming ≥4 times/week (Pfor trend = 0·01). The inverse association was consistent in subgroups defined by age, sex and BMI. In conclusion, higher mushroom intake was significantly associated with lower prevalence of NAFLD among Chinese adults. Future research is required to understand the causal association between mushroom intake and NAFLD.
Leucine plays an important role in promoting muscle protein synthesis and muscle remodelling. However, what percentage of leucine is appropriate in creep feed and what proteome profile alterations are caused by dietary leucine in the skeletal muscle of piglets remain elusive. In this case, we applied isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation to analyse the proteome profile of the longissimus dorsi muscles of weanling piglets fed a normal leucine diet (NL; 1·66 % leucine) and a high-leucine diet (HL; 2·1 % leucine). We identified 157 differentially expressed proteins between these two groups. Bioinformatics analysis of these proteins exhibited the suppression of oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid β-oxidation, as well as the activation of glycolysis, in the HL group. For further confirmation, we identified that SDHB, ATP5F1, ACADM and HADHB were significantly down-regulated (P<0·01, except ATP5F1, P<0·05), whereas the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase was significantly up-regulated (P<0·05) in the HL group. We also show that enhanced muscle protein synthesis and the transition from slow-to-fast fibres are altered by leucine. Together, these results indicate that leucine may alter energy metabolism and promote slow-to-fast transitions in the skeletal muscle of weanling piglets.
In order to obtain the dynamic variation rule of the sulfur content of liquid steel in
the LF refining process, a complete mathematical model including a desulfurization kinetic
model and temperature model in the deep desulfurization process is presented, based on the
practical production and reaction mechanism of ultra-low-sulfur steel in a LF. The results
show that the calculated values of the sulfur content in liquid steel using the model fit
the experimental values well, and the relative error is less than 8%. The effects of
refining slag on the desulfurization process are analyzed in this paper, which shows that
slag basicity is most important at the early and middle stages of the process, while slag
weight is most important at the middle and late stages. The effect of the above factors on
the final sulfur content of liquid steel is further analyzed quantitatively. The simulated
results provide a theoretical basis to segment control the refining process in order to
achieve the maximum effect, improving efficiency, saving energy and reducing
In this paper, we demonstrate a thin film Cu–Ni–Nb alloy deposited directly on silicon, without a designated barrier, showing very high thermal stability at a temperature up to 700 °C for 1 h. Thin [Nb–Ni12]Cux films were sputter deposited and annealed, and their material and electrical properties were studied. The results can be explained by the “cluster-plus-glue atom” model for stable solid solutions, where [Nb–Ni12] cuboctahedral clusters are embedded in a Cu matrix. In this model, the clusters are congruent with the Cu minimizing atomic interactions allowing a good stability. The properties of the films were found to be affected by the Ni/Nb ratios. Especially, the (Nb1.2/13.2Ni12/13.2)0.3Cu99.7 film annealed at 500 °C for 1 h had the lowest electrical resistivity of about 2.7 μΩ cm. And even after 40 h annealing at 500 °C, it maintained a low resistivity of about 2.8 μΩ cm, demonstrating extremely high stabilities against silicide formation.
Complex cerebral aneurysms may require indirect treatment with revascularization. This manuscript describes various surgical revascularization techniques together with clinical outcomes.
Thirty-two consecutive patients with complex cerebral aneurysm were managed from November 2005 to October 2008. Techniques used for revascularization were high-flow bypass, low-flow bypass, branch artery reimplantion, and primary reanastomosis. Physiologic and anatomic monitoring technologies, including electroencephalography, somatosensory evoked potential monitoring, microvascular doppler ultrasonography, and/or indocyanine green videoangiography were used intraoperatively to assess both brain physiology and vascular anatomy. Patient outcome was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Scale at discharge and at a mean of 12 months post operation (range 6-25 months).
Two cervical carotid aneurysms (6%) were resected followed by primary reanastomosis, 21 aneurysms (66%) were trapped following saphenous vein high-flow bypasses, five (16%) were clipped after superficial temporal or occipital artery low-flow bypasses, and four (12%) middle cerebral branch arteries were reimplanted. Of the 32 patients at discharge, 29 (91%) had a Glasgow Outcome Scale of four or five, two (6%) had severe disability, and one (3%) died.
Cerebral revascularization remains an effective and reliable procedure for treatment of complex cerebral aneurysms. Low morbidity and mortality rates reflect the maturity of patient selection and surgical technique in the management of these lesions.
Sui SG, Wu MX, King ME, Zhang Y, Ling L, Xu JM, Weng XC, Duan L, Shan BC, Li LJ. Abnormal grey matter in victims of rape with PTSD in Mainland China: a voxel-based morphometry study.
This study examined changes in brain grey matter in victims of rape (VoR) with and without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous research has focused on PTSD caused by various traumatic events, such as war and disaster, among others. Although considerable research has focused on rape-related PTSD, limited studies have been carried out in the context of Mainland China.
The study included 11 VoR with PTSD, 8 VoR without PTSD and 12 healthy comparison (HC) subjects. We used voxel-based morphometry to explore changes in brain grey-matter density (GMD) by applying statistical parametric mapping to high-resolution magnetic resonance images.
Compared with HC, VoR with PTSD showed significant GMD reductions in the bilateral medial frontal cortex, left middle frontal cortex, middle temporal gyrus and fusiform cortex and significant GMD increases in the right posterior cingulate cortex, postcentral cortex, bilateral precentral cortex and inferior parietal lobule. Compared to VoR without PTSD, VoR with PTSD showed significant GMD reductions in the right uncus, left middle temporal gyrus, and the fusiform cortex, and increases in the left precentral cortex, inferior parietal lobule and right post-central cortex.
The findings of abnormal GMD in VoR with PTSD support the hypothesis that PTSD is associated with widespread anatomical changes in the brain. The medial frontal cortex, precentral cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, post-central cortex and inferior parietal lobule may play important roles in the neuropathology of PTSD.
This study aimed to explore high-throughput cDNA array monitoring technology and to apply it to the gene expression spectrum analysis of salinity-challenged tobacco plants. A Nicotiana tabacum cDNA library was sequenced and found to consist of 5927 high-quality sequences (GenBank accession nos CV015900-CV021826). By analysing the expressed sequence tags (ESTs), the proportion of N. tabacum genes was identified at the EST level. A cDNA array was constructed based on the tentative unique transcripts (TUTs) derived from EST assembling results. A total of 42 differentially expressed genes were identified, including plasma membrane intrinsic protein 2a, ethylene-responsive proteinase and pre-mRNA splicing factor prp31 gene, suggesting that there was a complicated biological response in N. tabacum under saline stress.
After examining ternary Al-based quasi-crystalline phase diagrams, we pointed out that the presence of e/a-constant and e/a-variant lines is a common phenomenon. Ternary quasi-crystal compositions are located at the crossing point of these lines in ternary phase diagrams. Such an empirical rule can be used to predict the ternary quasi-crystal compositions from binary ones. We applied this rule to the Al–Fe–Ni system and clarified the decagonal phase composition zone. There are two decagonal phases, D-Al72.5Fe14.5Ni13 and D′-Al705Fe12Ni17.5, that correspond respectively to Al–Fe-based and Al–Ni-based decagonal phases in the same ternary system.
where is continuous on RN and h(x)≢0. By using Ekeland's variational principle and the Mountain Pass Theorem without (PS) conditions, through a careful inspection of the energy balance for the approximated solutions, we show that the probelm (*) has at least two solutions for some λ* > 0 and λ ∈ (0, λ*). In particular, if p = 2, in a different way we prove that problem (*) with λ ≡ 1 and h(x) ≧ 0 has at least two positive solutions as
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