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The resurgence and outbreaks of mumps occur frequently in many countries worldwide in recent years, even in countries with high vaccination coverage. In this study, a descriptive and spatiotemporal clustering analysis at the township level was conducted to explore the dynamic spatiotemporal aggregation and epidemiological characteristics of mumps in Wuhan. During 2005 and 2019, there were 40 685 cases reported in Wuhan, with an average annual morbidity of 28.11 per 100 000 populations. The morbidity showed a fluctuating tendency, and peaked in 2010 and 2018. Bimodal seasonality was found, with a large peak between May and July, and a mild peak from November to January in the following year. Male students aged 5–9-year-old were the main risk group of mumps infection. Significant global spatial auto-correlation was detected except in 2007, 2009 and 2015. The spatial and temporal scan statistics indicated that the hot-spots mainly located at the western and southern areas of Wuhan with variations almost every year. Our findings could assist the public health authorities to develop and improve targeted health strategies, and allocate health resources rationally.
Swirling waves frequently occur in a three-dimensional tank under a nearly resonant excitation with oblique excitation angle. The oblique excitation produces two excitation components and the secondary component triggers rotational waves. The detailed mechanism of the switch in circular direction is clearly described in this study. The evolution of the hydrodynamic forces (Fz) on the tank walls presents a beating phenomenon and the switch direction always occurs at the peak and trough of the envelope of the Fz history. The external excitation moment changes the circulation intensity, and finally the swirling wave becomes a single-direction wave, but only for a short time. The profile of the single-direction wave was determined by the dominant sloshing mode and the instantaneous tank motion was found to be a key factor to determine the consequent swirling flow circulating direction.
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