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Emotional events can either impair or enhance memory for immediately preceding items. The GANE model explains this bidirectional effect as a glutamate “priority” signal that modulates noradrenaline release depending on arousal state. We argue for an alternative explanation: that priority itself evokes phasic noradrenaline release. Thus, contrasting E-1 memory effects are explained by a mechanism based on the Bienenstock–Cooper–Munro theory.
In the second of two articles on rare causes of dementia, the authors describe toxic, iatrogenic, nutritional, traumatic, metabolic, neoplastic and autoimmune causes of dementia. Disorders are graded according to their prevalence, to give an idea of the likelihood of their presentation. Guidance is given on the investigation of uncommon cognitive impairment and dementia, especially in early-onset illness.
It has been traditionally assumed that medial temporal lobe (MTL) is not required for working memory (WM). However, animal lesion and electrophysiological studies and human neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have provided increasing evidences of a critical involvement of MTL in WM. Based on previous findings, the central aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the MTL to verbal WM encoding. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to compare the patterns of MTL activation of 9 epilepsy patients suffering from left hippocampal sclerosis with those of 10 healthy matched controls while they performed a verbal WM task. MEG recordings allow detailed tracking of the time course of MTL activation. We observed impaired WM performance associated with changes in the dynamics of MTL activity in epilepsy patients. Specifically, whereas patients showed decreased activity in damaged MTL, activity in the contralateral MTL was enhanced, an effect that became significant in the 600- to 700-ms interval after stimulus presentation. These findings strongly support the crucial contribution of MTL to verbal WM encoding and provide compelling evidence for the proposal that MTL contributes to both episodic memory and WM. Whether this pattern is signaling reorganization or a normal use of a damaged structure is discussed. (JINS, 2009, 15, 536–546.)
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