The construction of the sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) molecular genetic linkage map started in the early 1990s. Molecular genetic maps with a high density of markers covering almost the entire sorghum genome have been completed and integration of a sorghum genetic and physical map is under way. The correlation between genetic linkage groups and relevant chromosomes was established and the locations of the important structures of chromosomes, such as centromeres, long and short arms, nucleolus organizer region (NOR), etc., have been identified on the linkage groups. Molecular cytogenetic mapping of each chromosome has been advanced substantially. With continuing progress in the field, sequencing of the full sorghum genome and study of sorghum functional genomics will be initiated soon.