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In this work, a new phenylethylene derivative, named 2-((3,5-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)(p-tolyl)methylene)malononitrile (DCPTMM), is synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopies, mass spectrum, and X-ray crystallography. Its photophysical properties are systematically studied and the result illustrates that DCPTMM shows aggregation-induced emission (AIE). The X-ray single crystal diffraction shows that the individual structure of crystals is monoclinic system with space group symbol P21/c and presents a twisted propeller-type structure as well as the packing structure of crystals has multiple types of hydrogen bonds (C–H⋯π and C–H⋯N) formed between adjacent molecules, and there is no π–π interaction between the aromatic rings, which is the main reason for the formation of AIE. Nondoped OLED fabricated with DCPTMM as light emitting layer emits greenish yellow light with a maximum emission peak of 554 nm and has relatively good performance with a maximum current efficiency of 5.53 cd/A and a maximum brightness of 6936 cd/m2.
Cognitive impairment in late-life depression is common and associated with a higher risk of all-cause dementia. Late-life depression patients with comorbid cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) or related risk factors may experience higher risks of cognitive deterioration in the short term. We aim to investigate the effect of CVDs and their related risk factors on the cognitive function of patients with late-life depression.
A total of 148 participants were recruited (67 individuals with late-life depression and 81 normal controls). The presence of hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, or hyperlipidemia was defined as the presence of comorbid CVDs or related risk factors. Global cognitive functions were assessed at baseline and after a one-year follow-up by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Global cognitive deterioration was defined by the reliable change index (RCI) of the MMSE.
Late-life depression patients with CVDs or related risk factors were associated with 6.8 times higher risk of global cognitive deterioration than those without any of these comorbidities at a one-year follow-up. This result remained robust after adjusting for age, gender, and changes in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) scores.
This study suggests that late-life depression patients with comorbid CVDs or their related risk factors showed a higher risk of cognitive deterioration in the short-term (one-year follow up). Given that CVDs and their related risk factors are currently modifiable, active treatment of these comorbidities may delay rapid cognitive deterioration in patients with late-life depression.
Myat Thida Win, Masters candidate in the Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics at Michigan State University.,
Ben Belton, Assistant Professor of International Development in the Department of Agricultural, Food and Resource Economics, Michigan State University.,
Xiaobo Zhang, Distinguished Chair Professor of Economics at the National School of Development, Peking University in China, and Senior Research Fellow at the International Food Policy Research Institute.
Development economists see structural transformation—the process by which labour leaves the rural agricultural sector for the more productive urban industrial and service sectors—as fundamental to economic development. As progressively more labour relocates from rural to urban zones the former are transformed from labour surplus to labour deficit areas, and a “turning point” is reached when rural wages begin to catch up with urban ones (Lewis 1954). Recent evidence of this pattern can be found in many Asian countries such as Bangladesh and China (Zhang et al. 2011; Zhang et al. 2014). Agricultural mechanization, the process by which capital in the form of machinery is substituted for labour in agriculture, is viewed by agricultural economists as a labour-saving response to labour scarcity and rising rural wages (Binswanger 1986; Takahashi and Otsuka 2009). Binswanger (1986, p. 32) notes that “mechanization is profitable and contributes most to growth where land is abundant, where labor is scarce relative to land and where labor is moving rapidly off the land”. As such, agricultural mechanization can be read as a symptom of structural transformation that helps to maintain the viability of farming in the face of labour shortages and rising production costs (Zhang et al. 2017).
In contrast to this model of development, in which economic and social transformation along the rural-urban axis is predictable and linear in form, recent work by development geographers highlights processes of agrarian transition that are far more complex, partial and varied than the mainstream economics literature would suggest (e.g. Rigg & Vandergeest 2012). For instance, Rigg et al. (2016, p. 118) observe that—contrary to the expectations of most commentators—smallholders in East and Southeast Asia “have persisted in the face of rapid and profound social and economic transformation”. But they do so in a variety of new hybrid forms that reflect the conjuncture of variations in physical geography, mobility, markets, and government policies.
These debates have particular resonance for Myanmar as it emerges from five decades of isolation and becomes more deeply integrated into the regional and global economy. Three processes central to structural transformation have emerged post-2011. First, the economy is growing rapidly.
When borrowers are delinquent, senior debtholders prefer liquidation, whereas junior debtholders prefer to maintain their option value by delaying resolution or modifying the loan. In the mortgage market, a conflict of interest (“holdup”) arises when servicers of securitized senior liens are also the owners of the junior liens on the same property. We show that holdup servicers are able to delay action on the first-lien mortgage. When they do act, servicers are more likely to choose resolutions that maintain their option value, favoring modification and soft foreclosures over outright foreclosures. Holdup behavior is more likely to result in borrower self-curing.
In this paper, we first give a description of the holomorphic automorphism group of a convex domain which is a simple case of the so-called generalised minimal ball. As an application, we show that any proper holomorphic self-mapping on this type of domain is biholomorphic.
The description of the gravitational field at the surface of the Earth requires two quantities: the absolute value of the gravitational acceleration and the gravitational direction (deviation from vertical direction). At present, the various gravimeters measure the former quantity, and there is no effective instrument for monitoring the latter. This shortcoming seriously affects the comprehension and further knowledge of the gravitational field.
Firms today thrive on innovation. Knowledge exploration, the nonlocal search for new knowledge beyond the firm’s current expertise, is posited to be critical for innovation. This paper seeks to contribute to the research on knowledge exploration in two ways. First, this paper provides a comprehensive review of key empirical studies on knowledge exploration and innovation. Second, this paper proposes a recombinatory search framework of innovation to reconceptualise extant understanding of knowledge exploration on innovation. This new framework focusses on the evolution of the benefits and costs of knowledge exploration, and puts forward an inverse S-curve proposition between knowledge exploration and innovation. Two company cases, IBM and Procter & Gamble, are then used to illustrate the new proposition.
Historically, alloy development with better radiation performance has been focused on traditional alloys with one or two principal element(s) and minor alloying elements, where enhanced radiation resistance depends on microstructural or nanoscale features to mitigate displacement damage. In sharp contrast to traditional alloys, recent advances of single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys (SP-CSAs) have opened up new frontiers in materials research. In these alloys, a random arrangement of multiple elemental species on a crystalline lattice results in disordered local chemical environments and unique site-to-site lattice distortions. Based on closely integrated computational and experimental studies using a novel set of SP-CSAs in a face-centered cubic structure, we have explicitly demonstrated that increasing chemical disorder can lead to a substantial reduction in electron mean free paths, as well as electrical and thermal conductivity, which results in slower heat dissipation in SP-CSAs. The chemical disorder also has a significant impact on defect evolution under ion irradiation. Considerable improvement in radiation resistance is observed with increasing chemical disorder at electronic and atomic levels. The insights into defect dynamics may provide a basis for understanding elemental effects on evolution of radiation damage in irradiated materials and may inspire new design principles of radiation-tolerant structural alloys for advanced energy systems.
Modern diffraction and scattering methods of X-ray radiation allow for multi-scale probing of the material morphology for both polymer-based composite films and fibers. These approaches and analyses tools can be used to map the makeup of individual grain structures in various polymer nano-composites in order to examine the effects of the fillers on nano-scale structural changes in the materials. The electron intensity correlation function, derived from Fourier transformations of the X-ray scattering pattern provides a path to analyze acquired data for space resolved domains. Here in this study, polymer-based nano-carbon composite systems are analyzed. The polymers used include polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene, and polyacrilonitrile as matrix materials. The nano-carbon filler contribution to the grain size evolution is tracked by X-ray scattering/diffraction characterization. These results show that the relevant sizes of crystalline and amorphous domains within the lamellae structures correspond to the dispersion/distribution of the nano-filler in the composite materials. This work mainly illustrates an effective use of the correlation function to provide global morphological analysis in the composite system.
The suitability of complex financial products for household investors is an important issue in light of consumer financial protection. The U.S. Dodd–Frank Act, for instance, mandates that distributors check suitability when selling structured products to retail investors. However, little empirical evidence exists on such transactions. Using data from Hong Kong, we find that investors purchase 8% more structured products, on average, when the suitability is not checked. The effect of suitability checks is more pronounced for less financially literate investors. Moreover, investors tend to buy products with lower risk-adjusted returns when product suitability is not checked.
The present study aimed to compare the effects of a general dietary intervention and an intervention with low glycaemic load (GL) on glycaemic control, blood lipid metabolism and pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.
Participants were randomly assigned to two groups, receiving either an individualized general dietary intervention (Control group) or an intensive low-GL intervention (Low-GL group) every two weeks, from 24–26 weeks of gestation to delivery.
The Center of Maternal Primary Care in Guangdong General Hospital, China.
Ninety-five women with gestational diabetes mellitus were enrolled from June 2008 to July 2009.
After the intervention, both groups significantly decreased their dietary intakes of energy, fat and carbohydrate. The Low-GL group had significantly lower values for GL (122 v. 136) and glycaemic index (50 v. 54) but greater dietary fibre intake (33 v. 29 g/d) than did the Control group (all P<0·01). Significantly greater decreases in fasting plasma glucose (−0·33 v. −0·02 mmol/l, P<0·01) and 2 h postprandial glucose (−2·98 v. −2·51 mmol/l, P<0·01), significantly lower increases in total cholesterol (0·12 v. 0·23 mmol/l) and TAG (0·41 v. 0·56 mmol/l) and a significantly lower decrease in HDL cholesterol (−0·01 v. −0·11 mmol/l) were also observed in the Low-GL group compared with the Control group (all P<0·05). There were no significant differences in body weight gain, birth weight or other maternal–fetal perinatal outcomes between the two groups.
The low-GL targeted dietary intervention outperformed the general dietary intervention in glycaemic control and the improvement of blood lipid levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus.
It has been postulated that aging is the consequence of an accelerated accumulation of somatic DNA mutations and that subsequent errors in the primary structure of proteins ultimately reach levels sufficient to affect organismal functions. The technical limitations of detecting somatic changes and the lack of insight about the minimum level of erroneous proteins to cause an error catastrophe hampered any firm conclusions on these theories. In this study, we sequenced the whole genome of DNA in whole blood of two pairs of monozygotic (MZ) twins, 40 and 100 years old, by two independent next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms (Illumina and Complete Genomics). Potentially discordant single-base substitutions supported by both platforms were validated extensively by Sanger, Roche 454, and Ion Torrent sequencing. We demonstrate that the genomes of the two twin pairs are germ-line identical between co-twins, and that the genomes of the 100-year-old MZ twins are discerned by eight confirmed somatic single-base substitutions, five of which are within introns. Putative somatic variation between the 40-year-old twins was not confirmed in the validation phase. We conclude from this systematic effort that by using two independent NGS platforms, somatic single nucleotide substitutions can be detected, and that a century of life did not result in a large number of detectable somatic mutations in blood. The low number of somatic variants observed by using two NGS platforms might provide a framework for detecting disease-related somatic variants in phenotypically discordant MZ twins.
In this paper, a novel set of macros with line/space width from 128nm/128nm, 64nm/64nm to 32nm/32nm was designed and installed on 20nm technology-node hardware. The pitch-dependent pad erosion post Cu CMP was studied by atomic-force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) quantitatively on these macros. Two methods were investigated to reduce the difference between pitch- and density-induced CMP non-uniformity. The first is using new scheme of partial Cu plating process followed by SiCNH insulator deposition and then CMP. The second is through the selection of slurries and pads. Both results are discussed in this paper.
In this paper, we propose the Laguerre spectral method for high order problems with mixed inhomogeneous boundary conditions. It is also available for approximated solutions growing fast at infinity. The spectral accuracy is proved. Numerical results demonstrate its high effectiveness.
The metallic binary-alloy fuel Uranium-Zirconium is important for the use of the new generation of advanced fast reactors. Uranium-Zirconium goes through a phase transition at higher temperatures to a (gamma) Body Centered Cubic (BCC) phase. The BCC high temperature phase is particularly important, since the BCC phase corresponds to the temperature range in which the fast reactors will operate. A semi-empirical MEAM (Modified Embedded Atom Method) potential is presented for Uranium-Zirconium. The physical properties of the Uranium-Zirconium binary alloy were reproduced using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with the MEAM potential. This is a large step in making a computationally acceptable fuel performance code.
The Lower Yangtze foreland basin is situated to the northwest of the early Palaeozoic Wuyi–Yunkai orogen in South China. To demonstrate its provenance history and the denudation of the orogen, seven sandstone samples were collected from the upper Ordovician to Silurian strata for U–Pb dating. The zircons show a broad range of ages that can be linked with the ages of specific units in the Wuyi–Yunkai orogen. The zircon spectra in the late Ordovician samples are similar to those in the pre-orogenic strata, suggesting a recycled source. The dominant age population of 880–740 Ma in the early Llandovery samples indicates that the middle Neoproterozoic volcanic rocks were the primary source. A significant age population of 460–425 Ma in the late Llandovery to Wenlock samples reflects the fact that the synorogenic magmatic and metamorphic rocks were exposed to provide detritus. The youngest zircons from the uppermost Silurian strata yield an age of 425 Ma, which approximates the inferred depositional age. This age, together with available biostratigraphic data, indicates that the foreland basin was formed 448–425 Ma ago. We surmise a possible link between the Wuyi–Yunkai orogen and the Appalachian–Caledonian orogen based on the geological constraints and palaeomagnetic data.
Calcifying fibrous tumour is a rare benign fibrous lesion. It is paucicellular, with fibroblasts, dense collagenisation, psammomatous and dystrophic calcification, and patchy lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates. Calcifying fibrous tumour was first described in subcutaneous and deep soft tissues, and has been reported all over the body. However, calcifying fibrous tumour originating from the heart is extremely rare. This article describes the case of a giant calcifying fibrous tumour arising from the right ventricle in a child, where the tumour was totally resected and no recurrence was observed during a 4-year follow-up period.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.