The problems of protecting passive bands in Australia, India, and Japan reflect the variety of research activities and radio telescopes in those countries, colored by the degree of user friendliness of the frequency management authorities.
In India, it is important to protect frequencies below 1400 MHz (for high redshift hydrogen line absorption or emission) and continuum bands at 327 MHz and 150 MHz (the latter currently allocated to cordless phones, paging systems, and rural communication).
In Japan, protection from harmful interference has been sought and refused at 4.8 and 5 GHz (microwave network), 10 and 15 GHz (mobile relay service), and 22 GHz (mobile data relay service). But extensive radio astronomy usage of mm to sub-mm bands has established priority for their use and allocation.
In Australia, there are major problems at 408 MHz (telephone links), 1.6 GHz (GLONASS, RDSS, and Land Mobile Service), 4.9 to 5 GHz (RDSS), and 22 GHz (satellite broadcasting and high definition TV service).
The degree of user friendliness of the frequency management administration appears to rate: 1. Australia, 2. India, 3. Japan on a diminishing scale of cooperation and concern. This affects the awareness of the radio astronomy community of conflicting allocations and the level of input into CCIR and the WARC.