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Most studies underline the contribution of heritable factors for psychiatric disorders. However, heritability estimates depend on the population under study, diagnostic instruments, and study designs that each has its inherent assumptions, strengths, and biases. We aim to test the homogeneity in heritability estimates between two powerful, and state of the art study designs for eight psychiatric disorders.
We assessed heritability based on data of Swedish siblings (N = 4 408 646 full and maternal half-siblings), and based on summary data of eight samples with measured genotypes (N = 125 533 cases and 208 215 controls). All data were based on standard diagnostic criteria. Eight psychiatric disorders were studied: (1) alcohol dependence (AD), (2) anorexia nervosa, (3) attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), (4) autism spectrum disorder, (5) bipolar disorder, (6) major depressive disorder, (7) obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and (8) schizophrenia.
Heritability estimates from sibling data varied from 0.30 for Major Depression to 0.80 for ADHD. The estimates based on the measured genotypes were lower, ranging from 0.10 for AD to 0.28 for OCD, but were significant, and correlated positively (0.19) with national sibling-based estimates. When removing OCD from the data the correlation increased to 0.50.
Given the unique character of each study design, the convergent findings for these eight psychiatric conditions suggest that heritability estimates are robust across different methods. The findings also highlight large differences in genetic and environmental influences between psychiatric disorders, providing future directions for etiological psychiatric research.
Records of absenteeism from primary schools are valuable data for infectious diseases surveillance. However, the analysis of the absenteeism is complicated by the data features of clustering at zero, non-independence and overdispersion. This study aimed to generate an appropriate model to handle the absenteeism data collected in a European Commission granted project for infectious disease surveillance in rural China and to evaluate the validity and timeliness of the resulting model for early warnings of infectious disease outbreak. Four steps were taken: (1) building a ‘well-fitting’ model by the zero-inflated Poisson model with random effects (ZIP-RE) using the absenteeism data from the first implementation year; (2) applying the resulting model to predict the ‘expected’ number of absenteeism events in the second implementation year; (3) computing the differences between the observations and the expected values (O–E values) to generate an alternative series of data; (4) evaluating the early warning validity and timeliness of the observational data and model-based O–E values via the EARS-3C algorithms with regard to the detection of real cluster events. The results indicate that ZIP-RE and its corresponding O–E values could improve the detection of aberrations, reduce the false-positive signals and are applicable to the zero-inflated data.
Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are one of the most common and severe symptoms of schizophrenia, but the neuroanatomical abnormalities underlying AVHs are not well understood. The present study aims to investigate whether AVHs are associated with cortical thinning.
Participants were schizophrenia patients from four centers across China, 115 with AVHs and 93 without AVHs, as well as 261 healthy controls. All received 3 T T1-weighted brain scans, and whole brain vertex-wise cortical thickness was compared across groups. Correlations between AVH severity and cortical thickness were also determined.
The left middle part of the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) was significantly thinner in schizophrenia patients with AVHs than in patients without AVHs and healthy controls. Inferences were made using a false discovery rate approach with a threshold at p < 0.05. Left MTG thickness did not differ between patients without AVHs and controls. These results were replicated by a meta-analysis showing them to be consistent across the four centers. Cortical thickness of the left MTG was also found to be inversely correlated with hallucination severity across all schizophrenia patients.
The results of this multi-center study suggest that an abnormally thin left MTG could be involved in the pathogenesis of AVHs in schizophrenia.
We report a novel approach to the instantaneous photoinitiated synthesis of mixed anatase-rutile nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films with a three-dimensional nanostructure through pulsed white light irradiation of photosensitive Ti-organic precursor films. Pulsed photoinitiated pyrolysis accompanied by instantaneous self-assembly and crystallization occurred to form graphitic oxides-coated TiO2 nanograins. Subsequent pulsed light irradiation working as in situ pulsed photothermal treatment improved the crystalline quality of TiO2 film despite its low attenuation of light. The non-radiative recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes in TiO2 nanograins, coupled with inefficient heat dissipation due to low thermal conductivity, produces enough heat to provide the thermodynamic driving force for improving the crystalline quality. The graphitic oxides were reduced by pulsed photothermal treatment and can be completely removed by oxygen plasma cleaning. This photoinitiated nanofabrication technology opens a promising way for the low-cost and high-throughput manufacturing of nanostructured metal oxides as well as TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films.
To systematically search for studies reporting outcomes for adenoidectomy alone as a treatment for paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea and use the data to perform a meta-analysis.
Nine databases, including PubMed and Medline, were systematically searched through to 1 April 2016. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement was followed.
A total of 1032 articles were screened and 126 full texts were reviewed. Three paediatric studies (47 patients) reported outcomes. Overall, apnoea–hypopnoea index values decreased from 18.1 ± 16.8 to 3.1 ± 5.5 events per hour (28 patients). Random-effects modelling demonstrated a mean difference of −14.43 events per hour (I2 = 23 per cent (low inconsistency)). The apnoea–hypopnoea index standardised mean difference was −1.14 (large magnitude of effect). The largest reduction in apnoea–hypopnoea index was observed in children aged less than 12 months (reduction of 56.6−94.9 per cent). Lowest oxygen saturation values improved from 80.0 ± 9.5 to 85.5 ± 6.0 per cent (13 children).
Adenoidectomy alone has improved obstructive sleep apnoea in children, especially in those aged less than 12 months; however, given the low number of studies, isolated adenoidectomy remains an area for additional research.
This study evaluated whether primary tumour characteristics are associated with specific features of metastatic lymph nodes in papillary thyroid carcinoma patients.
A retrospective review of 411 patients with pathologically diagnosed cervical lymph node metastasis was conducted.
A metastatic lymph node focus size of at least 2 mm was independently associated with a primary tumour size of at least 1 cm (hazard ratio 1.962) and with male sex (hazard ratio 1.947). A number of at least five lymph node metastases was independently associated with a primary tumour size of at least 1 cm (hazard ratio 2.863), extrathyroidal extension (hazard ratio 1.737) and male sex (hazard ratio 1.689). Extranodal extension was independently associated with a primary tumour size of at least 1 cm (hazard ratio 2.288), extrathyroidal extension (2.201) and male sex (hazard ratio 1.733).
Primary papillary thyroid carcinoma characteristics are related to the pathological features of lymph node metastases.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
We report on an experimental study of microstructure-based lasing in an optically pumped GaN/AlGaN separate confinement heterostructure (SCH). We achieved low-threshold ultra-violet lasing in optically pumped GaN/AlGaN separate confinement heterostructures over a wide temperature range. The spacing, directionality, and far-field patterns of the lasing modes are shown to be the result of microcavities that were naturally formed in the structures due to strain relaxation. The temperature sensitivity of the lasing wavelength was found to be twice as low as that of bulk-like GaN films. Based on these results, we discuss possibilities for the development of ultra-violet laser diodes with increased temperature stability of the emission wavelength.
We present a comprehensive study of the optical characteristics of (Al, In)GaN epilayers measured by photoluminescence (PL), integrated PL intensity, and time-resolved PL spectroscopy. For not only InGaN, but also AlGaN epilayers with large Al content, we observed an anomalous PL temperature dependence: (i) an “S-shaped” PL peak energy shift (decrease-increase-decrease) and (ii) an “inverted S-shaped” full width at half maximum (FWHM) change (increase-decrease-increase) with increasing temperature. Based on time-resolved PL, the S shape (inverted S shape) of the PL peak position (FWHM) as a function of temperature, and the much smaller PL intensity decrease in the temperature range showing the anomalous emission behavior, we conclude that strong localization of carriers occurs in InGaN and even in AlGaN with rather high Al content. We observed that the following increase with increasing Al content in AlGaN epilayers: (i) a Stokes shift between the PL peak energy and the absorption edge, (ii) a redshift of the emission with decay time, (iii) the deviations of the PL peak energy, FWHM, and PL intensity from their typical temperature dependence, and (iv) the corresponding temperature range of the anomalous emission behavior. This indicates that the band-gap fluctuation responsible for these characteristics is due to energy tail states caused by non-random inhomogeneous alloy potential variations enhanced with increasing Al content.
Undoped tin oxide films were grown on Si substrates by a reactive ion-assisted deposition technique in which oxygen ions were irradiated on depositing Sn particles. In order to investigate the oxidation from SnO to SnO2, the effects of initial oxygen contents and heat treatment on the final crystalline structure of tin oxide films were thoroughly examined. Oxygen to Sn metal ratio (No/Nsn) of as-deposited films were controlled from 1.1 to 1.9 by varying the relative arrival ratio (F) of oxygen ion to Sn particle from 0.025 to 0.1. Heat treatment was carried out in two different ways; one was post vacuum-annealing at 400 ∼ 600°C and the other was in-situ annealing 400 ∼ 500°C. Crystalline structure of as-deposited tin oxide films at room temperature was amorphous. After post-annealing at 400°C, only SnO phase was found below No/Nsn= 1.6 in x-ray diffraction and crystalline structure of the films comprising higher oxygen contents still appeared to be amorphous. Even though the films still showed SnO phase until Γ50 after 500°C post-annealing, however, mixed structures of SnO, SnO2, and intermediate Sn2O3/Sn3O4 were observed for the films Γ75 and Γ100 with higher oxygen contents. At 600°C annealing, perfect SnO2 phase was attained for the films having No/Nsn=1.9. On the other hand, pure polycrystalline SnO2 films could be obtained by in-situ annealing at low temperature. The values of No/Nsn and the chemical shifts with the variation of oxidation were carefully determined by the comparison of Sn MNN and O KLL Auger transitions. Surface microstructure of deposited films was also analyzed using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM).
The local structures and the EPR g factors g║ and g┴ are theoretically studied for the tetragonal Ti3+-Vo centers in BaTiO3 bulks and thin films using the perturbation formulas of the g factors for a 3d1 ion in tetragonally elongated octahedra and compressed tetrahedra, respectively, based on the cluster approach. For the Ti3+-Vo center in BaTiO3 bulks, the impurity Ti3+ suffers the displacement away from the oxygen vacancy Vo by about 0.15 Å along the C4 axis due to the electrostatic repulsion of the Vo. Nevertheless, the Ti3+-Vo center in BaTiO3 thin films may exhibit the tetragonally compressed tetrahedron, characterized by the bond angle 55.88° larger than that (≈54.74°) of an ideal tetrahedron. The quite different g factors (especially g anisotropies Δg = g║ − g┴) for the two kinds of samples are discussed, in view of the dissimilar bonding or coordination environments (i.e., incomplete bonding in the thin films may lead to the lower coordination number).
Large-scale graphene sheets were grown on thin nickel film coated Si substrates using a reliable and repeatable thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique. The graphene films were then transferred onto a SiO2 coated Si wafer to fabricate a 5 mm x 5 mm resistive sensor structure. Raman spectroscopy analysis confirmed the existence of graphene. Preliminary sensing results were demonstrated by the detection of hazardous gases such as NO2 and MMH (mono-methyl hydrazine). Characterization of the device channel resistivity (switching response) was conducted as a function of the analyte type and concentration. The sensor response indicates a charge transfer mechanism between the analytes and graphene.
We report the results of a pulsed organo-metallic beam epitaxy (POMBE) process for growing complex oxide films at low background gas pressure (10-4 -10-2 torr) and low substrate temperature (600 to 700 C) using organo-metallic precursors in an oxygen plasma environment. Our results show that POMBE can extend the capability of organo-metallic chemical vapor deposition to growing complex oxide films with high precision both in composition and structure without the need for post-deposition oxidation and heat treatments. The growth of phase-pure, highly oriented Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting oxide films ([Tc (R=0)=90.5K] and Jc (77K, 50K gauss)=l.l×105 A/cm2) is given as an example. Similar to the pulsed laser deposition process, the POMBE method has the potential for in-situ processing of multilayer structures (e.g. junctions).
Optical properties of La2Ti2O7 thin films were investigated by spectroscopie ellipsometry and compared to those of bulk sintered ceramics. Thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) from bulk targets. To separate the effects of thickness, porosity, and index of refraction on observed Ψ and δspectra in thin films, a Cauchy model for n vs. λ was developed from sintered samples, with known porosity. Assuming the effective bulk index of refraction followed the rule of mixtures, corrected models for La2Ti2O7 without porosity were used to determine thickness and porosity of thin films as a function of fabrication parameters such as laser energy, substrate material and temperature. Ellipsometry models were tested and refined through XRD, EDX, ESCA, and SEM.
High-capacity carbon electrodes for rechageable lithium-ion batteries were prepared by carbonization of thermosetting resins such as phenol-formaldehyde at temperatures between 500°C and 600°C. Their structures were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, in-situ transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. These studies suggest that the carbons consist predominantly of disorganized (amorphous) phase. However evidence was found in carbon containing nickel cobalt oxide for the presence of organized graphite-like regions of parallel and curved layer planes. These graphitized structure usually appear as agglomerate particles which are composed of many smaller (100-nm diameter) particles. The high degree of graphitization is attributed to catalytic graphitization that occurs in the presence of the metal oxide.
Single and multi-mode room temperature laser action was observed in GaN pyramids under strong optical pumping. The 5- and 15-micron-wide hexagonal-based pyramids were laterally overgrown on a patterned GaN/AlN seeding layer grown on a (111) silicon substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The pyramids were individually pumped, imaged, and spectrally analyzed through a high magnification optical system using a high density pulsed excitation source. We suggest that the cavity formed in a pyramid is of a ring type, formed by total internal reflections of light off the pyramids' surfaces. The mode spacing of the laser emission was found to be correlated to the size of pyramids. The effects of pyramid geometry and pulse excitation on the nature of laser oscillations inside of the pyramids is discussed.