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An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA levels on growth performance, tissue fatty acid profiles and relative expression of genes involved in the lipid metabolism of mud crab (Scylla paramamosain). Ten isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain five n-3 LC-PUFA levels at 7 and 12 % dietary lipid levels. The highest weight gain and specific growth rate were observed in crabs fed the diets with 19·8 and 13·2 mg/g n-3 LC-PUFA at 7 and 12 % lipid, respectively. Moisture and lipid contents in hepatopancreas and muscle were significantly influenced by dietary n-3 LC-PUFA at the two lipid levels. The DHA, EPA, n-3 LC-PUFA contents and n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in hepatopancreas and muscle significantly increased as dietary n-3 LC-PUFA levels increased at both lipid levels. The expression levels of Δ-6 fatty acyl desaturase and acyl-CoA oxidase in hepatopancreas increased significantly, and expression levels of fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I and hormone-sensitive TAG lipase were down-regulated, with increased dietary n-3 LC-PUFA regardless of lipid level. Based on weight gain, n-3 LC-PUFA requirements of S. paramamosain were estimated to be 20·1 and 12·7 mg/g of diet at 7 and 12 % dietary lipid, respectively. Overall, dietary lipid level influenced lipid metabolism, and purified, high-lipid diets rich in palmitic acid reduced the n-3 LC-PUFA requirement of juvenile mud crab.
We report the sputter deposition of Cu-7V and Cu-27V (at.%) alloy films in an attempt to yield a “clean” alloy to investigate nanocrystalline stability. Films grown in high vacuum chambers can mitigate processing contaminates which convolute the identification of nanocrystalline stability mechanism(s). The initial films were very clean with carbon and oxygen contents ranging between ~0.01 and 0.38 at.%. Annealing at 400 °C/1 h facilitated the clustering of vanadium at high-angle grain boundary triple junctions. At 800 °C/1 h annealing, the Cu-7V film lost its nanocrystalline grain sizes with the vanadium partitioned to the free surface; the Cu-27V retained its nanocrystalline grains with vanadium clusters in the matrix, but surface solute segregation was present. Though the initial alloy and vacuum annealing retained the low contamination levels sought, the high surface area-to-volume ratio of the film, coupled with high segregation tendencies, enabled this system to phase separate in such a manner that the stability mechanisms that were to be studied were lost at high temperatures. This illustrates obstacles in using thin films to address nanocrystalline stability.
In this paper, the generation of relativistic electron mirrors (REM) and the reflection of an ultra-short laser off the mirrors are discussed, applying two-dimension particle-in-cell simulations. REMs with ultra-high acceleration and expanding velocity can be produced from a solid nanofoil illuminated normally by an ultra-intense femtosecond laser pulse with a sharp rising edge. Chirped attosecond pulse can be produced through the reflection of a counter-propagating probe laser off the accelerating REM. In the electron moving frame, the plasma frequency of the REM keeps decreasing due to its rapid expansion. The laser frequency, on the contrary, keeps increasing due to the acceleration of REM and the relativistic Doppler shift from the lab frame to the electron moving frame. Within an ultra-short time interval, the two frequencies will be equal in the electron moving frame, which leads to the resonance between laser and REM. The reflected radiation near this interval and corresponding spectra will be amplified due to the resonance. Through adjusting the arriving time of the probe laser, a certain part of the reflected field could be selectively amplified or depressed, leading to the selective adjustment of the corresponding spectra.
The present study evaluated the effects of dietary Zn level on growth performance, serum and hepatopancreas metabolites, expression of genes involved in lipid and energy metabolism, and the signalling pathway of dietary Zn-induced lipolysis. Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets were formulated to contain different Zn levels: 46·4 (basal diet), 77·2, 87·0, 117·1 and 136·8 mg/kg, respectively. The results indicated that shrimp fed the diet containing Zn at 117·1 mg/kg had higher weight gain and specific growth rate, and the lowest feed intake and feed conversion rate, than shrimp fed the other diets. The deposition rate of Zn in whole body significantly decreased with increasing dietary Zn level. Dietary Zn prevented the accumulation of free radicals and improved antioxidant activities by increasing Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and reducing malondialdehyde in hepatopancreas. Dietary Zn supplementation enhanced lipase activity and adiponectin, which could promote TAG breakdown and fatty acid oxidation and lead to reduced lipid in hepatopancreas. The mRNA expressions of ob-rb, adipor, camkkβ, ampk, cd36, mcd and cpt1 involved in Zn-induced lipid catabolism were up-regulated, and the expressions of srebp, acc, fas and scd1 were down-regulated. The mRNA levels of SLC39 family genes (zip3, zip9, zip11 and zip14) in hepatopancreas were up-regulated with increasing dietary Zn level. The results demonstrated that dietary Zn level could significantly affect growth performance, tissue deposition of Zn, lipid metabolites and expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and lipolysis in Litopenaeus vannamei.
To aid emergency response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) researchers monitor unplanned school closures (USCs) by conducting online systematic searches (OSS) to identify relevant publicly available reports. We examined the added utility of analyzing Twitter data to improve USC monitoring.
Georgia public school data were obtained from the National Center for Education Statistics. We identified school and district Twitter accounts with 1 or more tweets ever posted (“active”), and their USC-related tweets in the 2015-16 and 2016-17 school years. CDC researchers provided OSS-identified USC reports. Descriptive statistics, univariate, and multivariable logistic regression were computed.
A majority (1,864/2,299) of Georgia public schools had, or were in a district with, active Twitter accounts in 2017. Among these schools, 638 were identified with USCs in 2015-16 (Twitter only, 222; OSS only, 2015; both, 201) and 981 in 2016-17 (Twitter only, 178; OSS only, 107; both, 696). The marginal benefit of adding Twitter as a data source was an increase in the number of schools identified with USCs by 53% (222/416) in 2015-16 and 22% (178/803) in 2016-17.
Policy-makers may wish to consider the potential value of incorporating Twitter into existing USC monitoring systems.
Introduction: Inhaled toxins from tobacco smoking, cannabis leaf smoking as well as vaping/e-cigarette products use are known causes of cardio-respiratory injury. While tobacco smoking has decreased among Canadian adults, there are now several other forms of legal inhalant products. While legal, the evidence of benefit and safety of vaping is limited. Of concern, cases of e-cigarette or vaping products use associated lung injury (EVALI) have been accumulating in the U.S. and now in Canada. Despite this, very little is known about the inhalation exposure of emergency department (ED) patients; this study was designed to explore lung health in the ED. Methods: We investigated the prevalence of exposure to vaping, tobacco and cannabis among patients presenting to a Canadian ED from July to November 2019. Ambulatory (CTAS 2 to 5), stable, adult (≥ 17 years) patients were prospectively identified and invited to complete a survey addressing factors related to lung health (previous diagnosis of respiratory conditions and respiratory symptoms at the ED presentation) and information on current exposure to vaping, tobacco and cannabis smoking. Categorical variables are reported as frequencies and percentages; continuous variables are reported as medians with interquartile range (IQR). The study was approved by the Health Research Ethics Board. Results: Overall, 1024 (71%) of 1433 eligible patients completed the survey. The median age was 43.5 (IQR: 29, 60), and 51% were female. A total of 351 (31%) participants reported having been previously diagnosed with ≥1 respiratory conditions, and 177 (17%) were visiting the ED as a result of ≥1 respiratory symptoms (e.g., cough, shortness of breath, wheezing). Daily tobacco smoking was reported by 190 (19%), and 83 (8%) reported using vaping/e-cigarette products. Cannabis use within 30 days was described by 80 (15%) respondents. Exposure to tobacco and vaping products was reported by 39 (4%) participants, 63 (6%) reported using tobacco in combination with cannabis smoking, and 3% reported combining vaping and cannabis use. Conclusion: Patients seeking care in the ED are exposed to a large quantity of inhaled toxins. Vaping products, considered the cause of the most recent epidemic of severe lung injury, are used in isolation and in combination with other smoking products in Canada. These exposures should be documented and may increase the risk of lung health injuries and exacerbations of chronic respiratory conditions.
Introduction: Despite being legal in Canada, the vaporized liquid of vaping systems contains several chemicals presenting unknown risks to lung health and little is known about their use in patients visiting the emergency department (ED). This study explores associations between exposure to inhaled products and respiratory presentations in the ED. Methods: A cross-sectional lung health survey among patients presenting to a Canadian ED was conducted, exploring the association between inhaled toxic exposures (e.g., vaping, cannabis and cigarette smoking) and visits related to respiratory symptoms. Eligible participants were ambulatory (CTAS 2 to 5), stable, adults (≥ 17 years) visiting the ED from July to November, 2019. Results are described as frequencies and percentages (categorical variables) and medians with interquartile range (IQR, continuous variables). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models report associations as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The Health Research Ethics Board approved the study. Results: From 1433 eligible patients, 1024 (71%) completed the survey. The median age was 43.5 (IQR: 29, 60), and 51% were female. Overall, 177 (17%) reported ≥1 respiratory symptoms and 83 (8%) reported using any vaping products. In a univariate regression analysis, exposure to vaping was positively associated with ED visits related to respiratory symptoms (OR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.26 to 3.54). In the multivariate model, vaping and a previous diagnosis of ≥1 respiratory conditions showed positive association with respiratory-related ED visits (OR 1.86, 95% CI: 1.03 to 3.33; and OR 2.13, 95% CI: 1.50 to 3.02, respectively). There was evidence of an additive effect of the combined exposure to cigarettes and vaping and respiratory-related ED visits (OR 3.22, 95% CI: 1.61 to 6.43). Smoking cannabis and cigarettes alone were not associated with increased risk of respiratory-related visits. Conclusion: Using vaping products increased the occurrence of respiratory-related ED visits, particularly in people with pre-existing lung conditions. A dose-response relationship exists where the risk is highest in patients inhaling a combination of toxins. Contrary to previous assumptions, the use of vaping products has a negative impact on lung health.
Post-stroke depression (PSD) is the most common psychiatric complication facing stroke survivors and has been associated with increased distress, physical disability, poor rehabilitation, and suicidal ideation. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PSD remain unknown, and no objective laboratory-based test is available to aid PSD diagnosis or monitor progression.
Here, an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomic approach was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins in plasma samples obtained from PSD, stroke, and healthy control subjects.
The significantly differentiated proteins were primarily involved in lipid metabolism and immunoregulation. Six proteins associated with these processes – apolipoprotein A-IV (ApoA-IV), apolipoprotein C-II (ApoC-II), C-reactive protein (CRP), gelsolin, haptoglobin, and leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG) – were selected for Western blotting validation. ApoA-IV expression was significantly upregulated in PSD as compared to stroke subjects. ApoC-II, LRG, and CRP expression were significantly downregulated in both PSD and HC subjects relative to stroke subjects. Gelsolin and haptoglobin expression were significantly dysregulated across all three groups with the following expression profiles: gelsolin, healthy control > PSD > stroke subjects; haptoglobin, stroke > PSD > healthy control.
Early perturbation of lipid metabolism and immunoregulation may be involved in the pathophysiology of PSD. The combination of increased gelsolin levels accompanied by decreased haptoglobin levels shows promise as a plasma-based diagnostic biomarker panel for detecting increased PSD risk in post-stroke patients.
Increasing evidence indicates that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with cognitive as well as mood disturbances.
To evaluate cognitive function and white matter structure, resting-state brain function in first-episode, treatmentnaive patients with MDD.
To explore brain structure and function mechanisms of cognitive impairment in MDD.
46 Han Chinese MDD patients aged 18–45 year and 46 controls were assessed by a series of validated test procedures.Then, 30 patients and 30 controls were obtained by MRI scan.White matter abnormalities evaluated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were analyzed using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) and resting-state brain function was evaluated using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis.
Cognitive impairment in patients with MDD was demonstrated by reduced accuracy in the Wisconsin Card Sorting test (WSCT) and to a lesser extent the Continuous Performance test (CPT) and Trail Making tests (TMT). White matter abnormalities found in the left cerebellum, and resting-state abnormalities present in the left inferior parietal gyrus, left anterior cingulate nucleus and left hippocampal gyrus were associated with impaired performance in the WSCT and CPT tests. We also showed that poor WSCT performance was associated with increased interconnectivity between the left ventral anterior cingulate nucleus and the medial frontal lobe areas.
The present study indicates cognitive disturbances in patients with MDD are associated with white matter and resting-state changes and altered interconnections in specific brain areas.
The aim of this study was to develop and externally validate a simple-to-use nomogram for predicting the survival of hospitalised human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients (hospitalised person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs)). Hospitalised PLWHAs (n = 3724) between January 2012 and December 2014 were enrolled in the training cohort. HIV-infected inpatients (n = 1987) admitted in 2015 were included as the external-validation cohort. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method was used to perform data dimension reduction and select the optimal predictors. The nomogram incorporated 11 independent predictors, including occupation, antiretroviral therapy, pneumonia, tuberculosis, Talaromyces marneffei, hypertension, septicemia, anaemia, respiratory failure, hypoproteinemia and electrolyte disturbances. The Likelihood χ2 statistic of the model was 516.30 (P = 0.000). Integrated Brier Score was 0.076 and Brier scores of the nomogram at the 10-day and 20-day time points were 0.046 and 0.071, respectively. The area under the curves for receiver operating characteristic were 0.819 and 0.828, and precision-recall curves were 0.242 and 0.378 at two time points. Calibration plots and decision curve analysis in the two sets showed good performance and a high net benefit of nomogram. In conclusion, the nomogram developed in the current study has relatively high calibration and is clinically useful. It provides a convenient and useful tool for timely clinical decision-making and the risk management of hospitalised PLWHAs.
Self-recognition is of great significance to our sense of self. To date, disturbances in the processing of visual self-recognition are well studied in people with schizophrenia, whereas relatively few studies have focused on the processing of self in other domains, such as auditory. An investigation of auditory self-recognition contributes to delineate changes related to self and the potential roots of the described psychopathological aspects connoting schizophrenia. By applying unimodal task and multisensory test, this study investigated auditory self-recognition in people with schizophrenia under unimodal and bimodal circumstances. Forty-six adults diagnosed with schizophrenia and thirty-two healthy controls were involved in this study. Results suggested that people with schizophrenia seemed to have significantly lower perceptual sensitivity in detecting self-voice, and also showed stricter judgment criteria in self-voice decision. Furthermore, in the presentation of stimuli that combined the stimulation of others’ faces with one’s own voice, people with schizophrenia mistakenly attributed the voices of others as their own. In conclusion, altered auditory self-recognition in people with schizophrenia was found.
In this paper, a novel continuous fiber reinforced piezoelectric composite (CFRPC) actuator is proposed to improve the stability and reliability of piezoelectric actuators. A piezoelectric driving structure composed of a cantilever beam and the CFRPC actuator is utilized to research the actuation performance of the CFRPC actuator. The expression of the equivalent moment for the CFRPC actuator is obtained using the equivalent load method and electro-mechanical coupling theory. Based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, the analytical expression of the deflection for the cantilever beam is derived. The accuracy of the obtained analytical expressions is demonstrated by finite element simulation as well as published experimental results. The actuation performance of the CFRPC actuator is investigated through the analytical expressions of the equivalent moment and deflection. The results show that the key parameters such as driving voltage, fiber volume fraction, cantilever beam height, actuator height, actuator length and actuator position have great influence on the actuation performance of the CFRPC actuator. The CFRPC actuator has good mechanical and electrical properties, and has a wide application prospect in the field of structural shape control.
This paper focus on the mechanical and martensitic transformation behaviors of axially functionally graded shape memory alloy (AFG SMA) beams. It is taken into consideration that material properties, such as austenitic elastic modulus, martensitic elastic modulus, critical transformation stresses and maximum transformation strain vary continuously along the longitudinal direction. According to the simplified linear SMA constitutive equations and Bernoulli-Euler beam theory, the formulations of stress, strain, martensitic volume fraction and governing equations of the deflection, height and length of transformed layers are derived. Employing the Galerkin’s weighted residual method, the governing differential equation of the deflection is solved. As an example, the bending behaviors of an AFG SMA cantilever beam subjected to an end concentrated load are numerically analyzed using the developed model. Results show that the mechanical and martensitic transformation behaviors of the AFG SMA beam are complex after the martensitic transformation of SMA occurs. The influences of FG parameter on the mechanical behaviors and geometrical shape of transformed regions are obvious, and should be considered in the design and analysis of AFG SMA beams in the related regions.
The present study aimed to investigate whether dietary choline can regulate lipid metabolism and suppress NFκB activation and, consequently, attenuate inflammation induced by a high-fat diet in black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii). An 8-week feeding trial was conducted on fish with an initial weight of 8·16 ± 0·01 g. Five diets were formulated: control, low-fat diet (11 %); HFD, high-fat diet (17 %); and HFD supplemented with graded levels of choline (3, 6 or 12 g/kg) termed HFD + C1, HFD + C2 and HFD + C3, respectively. Dietary choline decreased lipid content in whole body and tissues. Highest TAG and cholesterol concentrations in serum and liver were recorded in fish fed the HFD. Similarly, compared with fish fed the HFD, dietary choline reduced vacuolar fat drops and ameliorated HFD-induced pathological changes in liver. Expression of genes of lipolysis pathways were up-regulated, and genes of lipogenesis down-regulated, by dietary choline compared with fish fed the HFD. Expression of nfκb and pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver and intestine was suppressed by choline supplementation, whereas expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines was promoted in fish fed choline-supplemented diets. In fish that received lipopolysaccharide to stimulate inflammatory responses, the expression of nfκb and pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver, intestine and kidney were all down-regulated by dietary choline compared with the HFD. Overall, the present study indicated that dietary choline had a lipid-lowering effect, which could protect the liver by regulating intrahepatic lipid metabolism, reducing lipid droplet accumulation and suppressing NFκB activation, consequently attenuating HFD-induced inflammation in A. schlegelii.
The regulation of lipogenesis and lipolysis mechanisms related to consumption of lipid has not been studied in swimming crab. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid levels on growth, enzymes activities and expression of genes of lipid metabolism in hepatopancreas of juvenile swimming crab. Three isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain crude lipid levels at 5·8, 9·9 and 15·1 %. Crabs fed the diet containing 15·1 % lipid had significantly lower growth performance and feed utilisation than those fed the 5·8 and 9·9 % lipid diets. Crabs fed 5·8 % lipid had lower malondialdehyde concentrations in the haemolymph and hepatopancreas than those fed the other diets. Highest glutathione peroxidase in haemolymph and superoxide dismutase in hepatopancreas were observed in crabs fed 5·8 % lipid. The lowest fatty acid synthase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in hepatopancreas were observed in crabs fed 15·1 % lipid, whereas crabs fed 5·8 % lipid had lower carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 activity than those fed the other diets. Crabs fed 15·1 % lipid showed lower hepatopancreas expression of genes involved in long-chain-PUFA biosynthesis, lipoprotein clearance, fatty acid uptake, fatty acid oxidation, lipid anabolism and lipid catabolism than those fed the other diets, whereas expression of some genes of lipoprotein assembly and fatty acid oxidation was up-regulated compared with crabs fed 5·8 % lipid. Overall, high dietary lipid level can inhibit growth, reduce antioxidant enzyme activities and influence lipid metabolic pathways to regulate lipid deposition in crab.
Some studies have shown that the excessive metabolic heat production is the primary cause for dead chicken embryos during late embryonic development. Increasing heat shock protein (HSP) expression and adjusting metabolism are important ways to maintain body homeostasis under heat stress. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo injection (IOI) of vitamin C (VC) at embryonic age 11th day (E11) on HSP and metabolic genes expression. A total of 320 breeder eggs were randomly divided into normal saline and VC injection groups. We detected plasma VC content and rectal temperature at chick’s age 1st day, and the mRNA levels of HSP and metabolic genes in embryonic livers at E14, 16 and 18, analysed the promoter methylation levels of differentially expressed genes and predicted transcription factors at the promoter regions. The results showed that IOI of VC significantly increased plasma VC content and decreased rectal temperature (P < 0.05). In ovo injection of VC significantly increased heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) genes expression at E16 and PDK4 and secreted frizzled related protein 1 (SFRP1) at E18 (P < 0.05). At E16, IOI of VC significantly decreased the methylation levels of total CpG sites and −336 CpG site in HSP60 promoter and −1137 CpG site in PDK4 promoter (P < 0.05). Potential binding sites for nuclear factor-1 were found around −389 and −336 CpG sites in HSP60 promoter and potential binding site for specificity protein 1 was found around −1137 CpG site in PDK4 promoter. Our results suggested that IOI of VC increased HSP60, PDK4 and SFRP1 genes expression at E16 and 18, which may be associated with the demethylation in gene promoters. Whether IOI of VC could improve hatchability needs to be further verified by setting uninjection group.
Guangxi, a province in southwestern China, has the second highest reported number of HIV/AIDS cases in China. This study aimed to develop an accurate and effective model to describe the tendency of HIV and to predict its incidence in Guangxi. HIV incidence data of Guangxi from 2005 to 2016 were obtained from the database of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network models, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models, generalised regression neural network (GRNN) models and exponential smoothing (ES) were used to fit the incidence data. Data from 2015 and 2016 were used to validate the most suitable models. The model performances were evaluated by evaluating metrics, including mean square error (MSE), root mean square error, mean absolute error and mean absolute percentage error. The LSTM model had the lowest MSE when the N value (time step) was 12. The most appropriate ARIMA models for incidence in 2015 and 2016 were ARIMA (1, 1, 2) (0, 1, 2)12 and ARIMA (2, 1, 0) (1, 1, 2)12, respectively. The accuracy of GRNN and ES models in forecasting HIV incidence in Guangxi was relatively poor. Four performance metrics of the LSTM model were all lower than the ARIMA, GRNN and ES models. The LSTM model was more effective than other time-series models and is important for the monitoring and control of local HIV epidemics.
Introduction: Emergency department (ED) staff carry a high risk for the burnout syndrome of increased emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and decreased personal accomplishment. Previous research has shown that task-oriented coping skills were associated with reduced levels of burnout compared to emotion-oriented coping. ED staff at one hospital participated in an intervention to teach task-oriented coping skills. We hypothesized that the intervention would alter staff coping behaviors and ultimately reduce burnout. Methods: ED physicians, nurses and support staff at two regional hospitals were surveyed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). Surveys were performed before and after the implementation of communication and conflict resolution skills training at the intervention facility (I) consisting of a one-day course and a small group refresher 6 to 15 months later. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis assessed differences in staff burnout and coping styles compared to the control facility (C) and over time. Results: 85/143 (I) and 42/110 (C) ED staff responded to the initial survey. Post intervention 46 (I) and 23(C) responded. During the two year study period there was no statistically significant difference in CISS or MBI scores between hospitals (CISS: (Pillai's trace = .02, F(3,63) = .47, p = .71, partial η2 = .02); MBI: (Pillai's trace = .01, F(3,63) = .11, p = .95, partial η2 = .01)) or between pre- and post-intervention groups (CISS: (Pillai's trace = .01, F(3,63) = .22, p = .88, partial η2 = .01); MBI: (Pillai's trace = .09, F(3,63) = 2.15, p = .10, partial η2 = .01)). Conclusion: We were not able to measure improvement in staff coping or burnout in ED staff receiving communication skills intervention over a two year period. Burnout is a multifactorial problem and environmental rather than individual factors may be more important to address. Alternatively, to demonstrate a measurable effect on burnout may require more robust or inclusive interventions.
Atom probe tomography (APT) of a nanocrystalline Cu–7 at.% V thin film annealed at 400°C for 1 h revealed chemical partitioning in the form of solute segregation. The vanadium precipitated along high angle grain boundaries and at triple junctions, determined by cross-correlative precession electron diffraction of the APT specimen. Upon field evaporation, the V2+/(V1+ + VH1+) ratio from the decomposed ions was ~3 within the matrix grains and ~16 within the vanadium precipitates. It was found that the VH1+ complex was prevalent in the matrix, with its presence explained in terms of hydrogen's ability to assist in field evaporation. The change in the V2+/(V1+ + VH1+) charge-state ratio (CSR) was studied as a function of base temperature (25–90 K), laser pulse energy (50–200 pJ), and grain orientation. The strongest influence on changing the CSR was with the varied pulse laser, which made the CSR between the precipitates and the matrix equivalent at the higher laser pulse energies. However, at these conditions, the precipitates began to coarsen. The collective results of the CSRs are discussed in terms of field strengths related to the chemical coordination.