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The role of adiponectin and leptin signaling pathways was suggested to play important roles in the protective effects of calorie restriction (CR) on mammary tumor (MT) development. To study the effects of CR on the methylation levels in AdipoR1 and Leprot genes using pyrosequencing method in mammary fat pad (MFP) tissue, mouse mammary tumor virus-transforming growth factor-alpha (MMTV-TGF-α) female mice were randomly assigned to ad libitum (AL), Chronic CR (CCR, 15% CR) or Intermittent CR (ICR, three weeks ALand one week 60% CR in cyclic periods) groups at 10 weeks of age until 82 weeks of age.The methylation levels of AdipoR1 in CCRgroupwas higher than in AL groupat week 49/50 (p<0.05), while the levels of methylation for AdipoR1 and Leprot genes were similar among the other groups. Also, the methylation levels at CpG2 and CpG3 regions of the promoter region of AdipoR1 gene in the CCR group were three times higher (p<0.05), while CpG1 island of Leprot methylation was significantlylowercompared to the other groups (p<0.05).Adiponectin and Leptin gene expression levels were consistent with the methylation levels. We also observed a change with the ageing in methylation levels of these genes.These results indicate that different types of CR modifymethylation levels of AdipoR1 andLeprotin different ways andCCR had a more significant effect on methylation levels of both genes.Epigenetic regulation of these genes may play important roles in the preventive effects of CR against MT development and ageing processes.
Coherence resonance (CR) is a phenomenon in which the response of a stable nonlinear system to external noise exhibits a peak in coherence at an intermediate noise amplitude. We report the first experimental evidence of CR in a hydrodynamic system, a low-density jet capable of undergoing both supercritical and subcritical Hopf bifurcations. By applying noise to the jet in its unconditionally stable regime, we find that, for both types of bifurcation, the coherence factor peaks at an intermediate noise amplitude and increases as the stability boundary is approached. We also find that the autocorrelation function decays differently between the two types of bifurcation, indicating that CR can reveal information about the nonlinearity of a system even before it bifurcates to a limit cycle. We then model the CR dynamics with a stochastically forced van der Pol oscillator calibrated in two different ways: (i) via the conventional method of measuring the amplitude evolution in transient experiments and (ii) via the system-identification method of Lee et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 862, 2019, pp. 200–215) based on the Fokker–Planck equation. We find better experimental agreement with the latter method, demonstrating the deficiency of the former method in identifying the correct form of system nonlinearity. The fact that CR occurs in the unconditionally stable regime, prior to both the Hopf and saddle-node points, implies that it can be used to forecast the onset of global instability. Although demonstrated here on a low-density jet, CR is expected to arise in almost all nonlinear dynamical systems near a Hopf bifurcation, opening up new possibilities for the development of global-instability precursors in a variety of hydrodynamic systems.
Some studies have shown that the excessive metabolic heat production is the primary cause for dead chicken embryos during late embryonic development. Increasing heat shock protein (HSP) expression and adjusting metabolism are important ways to maintain body homeostasis under heat stress. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo injection (IOI) of vitamin C (VC) at embryonic age 11th day (E11) on HSP and metabolic genes expression. A total of 320 breeder eggs were randomly divided into normal saline and VC injection groups. We detected plasma VC content and rectal temperature at chick’s age 1st day, and the mRNA levels of HSP and metabolic genes in embryonic livers at E14, 16 and 18, analysed the promoter methylation levels of differentially expressed genes and predicted transcription factors at the promoter regions. The results showed that IOI of VC significantly increased plasma VC content and decreased rectal temperature (P < 0.05). In ovo injection of VC significantly increased heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) genes expression at E16 and PDK4 and secreted frizzled related protein 1 (SFRP1) at E18 (P < 0.05). At E16, IOI of VC significantly decreased the methylation levels of total CpG sites and −336 CpG site in HSP60 promoter and −1137 CpG site in PDK4 promoter (P < 0.05). Potential binding sites for nuclear factor-1 were found around −389 and −336 CpG sites in HSP60 promoter and potential binding site for specificity protein 1 was found around −1137 CpG site in PDK4 promoter. Our results suggested that IOI of VC increased HSP60, PDK4 and SFRP1 genes expression at E16 and 18, which may be associated with the demethylation in gene promoters. Whether IOI of VC could improve hatchability needs to be further verified by setting uninjection group.
The resection of a subaortic membrane remains far from a curative operation. We sought to examine factors associated with reoperation and the degree of aortic valve regurgitation as a potential long-term source for reoperation.
All patients who underwent resection of an isolated subaortic membrane between 1995 and 2018 were included. Patients who underwent other procedures were excluded. Paired categorical data were compared using McNemar’s test. Univariate time-to-event analyses were performed using Kaplan–Meier methods with log-rank tests for categorical variables and univariate Cox models for continuous variables.
A total of 84 patients (median age 6.6, 31% females) underwent resection of isolated subaortic membrane. At a median follow-up of 9.3 years (interquartile range 0.6–22.5), 12 (14%) patients required one reoperation and 1 patient required two reoperations. Median time to first reoperation was 4.6 years. The degree of aortic valve regurgitation improved post-operatively from pre-operatively (p = 0.0007); however, the degree of aortic valve regurgitation worsened over the course of follow-up (p = 0.010) to equivalence with pre-operative aortic valve regurgitation (p = 0.18). Performance of a septal myectomy was associated with longer freedom from reoperation (p = 0.004).
In patients with isolated subaortic membranes, performance of a septal myectomy can minimise risk for reoperation. Patients should be serially monitored for degradation of the aortic valve, even if aortic regurgitation is not present post-operatively.
Two proposed methods are described for obtaining the depth profiles (τ-profiles) of strains and stresses as a function of the 1/e penetration depth τ, using GIXD in the asymmetric geometry, without the need for layer removal. In the first, the ψ-method: ψ is varied, for a given reflection, while holding τ constant, by varying the wavelength λ and adjusting the incident angle α so as to maintain τ constant. This allows dϕ,ψ vs Sin2ψ plots to be obtained at constant τ. In the second, the ϕ-integral method: interplanar spacings dϕ,ψ are measured for ϕ values from 0 to 2π, at constant ψ and τ by holding α fixed. Two ψ values, i.e. two wavelengths, are needed to obtain the whole strain tensor, but if the sample is quasi-isotropic and the stress state is biaxial, only one wavelength is needed. A direct method is also described for obtaining the profiles as a function of depth z (z-profiles) from the corresponding τ-profiles using inverse Laplace transforms. Application of the method to the residual strain vs τ data of Doerner and Brennan for an Al film on Si is presented.
Methods are described which make use of x-ray absorbing masks to either limit beam penetration in the sample (Type I), or confine the diffracting volume within definite limits (Type II). The masks consist of a metal film of Au or U, containing many long, parallel apertures of effective width w and spacing c. The mask is either applied directly to the sample surface (Type I), or to a weakly absorbing film (Be or Kapton) on the sample surface (Type II). With the Type I mask, the diffracting volume can be limited to a surface layer whose maximum depth zm at ψ=0 varies linearly with w, irrespective of sample or wavelength. The masks can be used with ψ-tilts in an Ω-type goniometer, and strains and stresses can be determined by the Sin2ψ method. Depth profiles as a function of depth z (z-profiles) can be obtained with layer removal if gradients over the depth Zm can be neglected. With the Type n mask, the diffracting volume can be limited to a discrete subsurface layer whose average depth depends on (c+w) and the Bragg angle 2θ, and whose thickness depends on w and 2θ. z-Profiles can be obtained by varying the wavelength for a given reflection using a synchrotron source, without the need for layer removal. The methods have not yet been tested experimentally.
A method for using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD) for profiling composition changes with depth of photovoltaic quality thin films is presented. The average thickness of the first layer in a multi-layer film of CuIn2Se3.5/CuInSe2/Mo and the variation in solid solution composition of a Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 (CIGS) film with depth are solved using this method. The phase volume fraction and the phase composition profiles are developed from peak intensity and d-spacing measurements respectively at a series of fixed incident angles corresponding to a set of increasing 1/e penetration depths, τ. Inverse Laplace and numerical methods are applied to the τ profiles converting them to true depth profiles. Vegard's law is applied to the d-spacing vs z-profile to obtain x in the formula Cu(In1-xGax)Se2. The results show that an ∼1 μm thick layer of CuIn2Se3.5 is present on the surface of the multi-layer film and that the CIGS film consists of a Ga rich surface layer ∼2000 Å thick followed by a gradual decrease in Ga content with increasing depth. This gradient appears to be desirable for producing photovoltaic quality CIGS films.
A new generation of high power laser facilities will provide laser pulses with extremely high powers of 10 petawatt (PW) and even 100 PW, capable of reaching intensities of
in the laser focus. These ultra-high intensities are nevertheless lower than the Schwinger intensity
at which the theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED) predicts that a large part of the energy of the laser photons will be transformed to hard Gamma-ray photons and even to matter, via electron–positron pair production. To enable the investigation of this physics at the intensities achievable with the next generation of high power laser facilities, an approach involving the interaction of two colliding PW laser pulses is being adopted. Theoretical simulations predict strong QED effects with colliding laser pulses of
focused to intensities
A multichannel calorimeter system is designed and constructed which is capable of delivering single-shot and broad-band spectral measurement of terahertz (THz) radiation generated in intense laser–plasma interactions. The generation mechanism of backward THz radiation (BTR) is studied by using the multichannel calorimeter system in an intense picosecond laser–solid interaction experiment. The dependence of the BTR energy and spectrum on laser energy, target thickness and pre-plasma scale length is obtained. These results indicate that coherent transition radiation is responsible for the low-frequency component (
1 THz) of BTR. It is also observed that a large-scale pre-plasma primarily enhances the high-frequency component (
3 THz) of BTR.
Low-density jets are central to many natural and industrial processes. Under certain conditions, they can develop global oscillations at a limit cycle, behaving as a prototypical example of a self-excited hydrodynamic oscillator. In this study, we perform system identification of a low-density jet using measurements of its noise-induced dynamics in the unconditionally stable regime, prior to both the Hopf and saddle-node points. We show that this approach can enable prediction of (i) the order of nonlinearity, (ii) the locations and types of the bifurcation points (and hence the stability boundaries) and (iii) the resulting limit-cycle oscillations. The only assumption made about the system is that it obeys a Stuart–Landau equation in the vicinity of the Hopf point, thus making the method applicable to a variety of hydrodynamic systems. This study constitutes the first experimental demonstration of system identification using the noise-induced dynamics in only the unconditionally stable regime, i.e. away from the regimes where limit-cycle oscillations may occur. This opens up new possibilities for the prediction and analysis of the stability and nonlinear behaviour of hydrodynamic systems.
The consequences of urbanisation for Earth's biogeochemical cycles are largely unexplored. Copper (Cu) in urban soils is being accumulated mainly due to anthropogenic activities under rapid urbanisation. The increasing Cu concentrations may contribute to altering soil nitrogen (N) cycling in urban ecosystems through modulating denitrification processes. This research aims to identify how Cu impacts urban soil denitrification functions and denitrifier abundance. An urban park soil with a background total Cu concentration of 7.9μgg–1 was incubated anaerobically with different Cu amendments (10, 20, 40, 80 and 160μg Cu g–1 soil), similar to prevalent Cu contents in urban soils. We evaluated the soil denitrification functions using the acetylene (C2H2) inhibition method and assessed the denitrifier abundance by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses of denitrifying marker genes (nirK, nirS and nosZ). At the function level, we observed that both the potential soil denitrification activity and the N2O emission rate due to denitrification were significantly (P<0.05) inhibited by Cu; even the lowest Cu addition (10μg Cu g–1 soil) drastically affected the denitrification function. Moreover, Cu significantly (P<0.05) decreased the abundance of nirK and nirS genes at the additions of 160μg Cu g–1 soil and 40μg Cu g–1 soil, respectively, whereas it had no clear impact on nosZ gene copies. Further correlation analyses revealed that the potential denitrification activity was positively correlated to the copy numbers of nirK and nirS genes, but it was not correlated to nosZ gene abundance. These findings indicate that Cu additions inhibited soil denitrification function and decreased denitrifier abundance in the investigated urban park soil. Our results suggest that Cu accumulation in urban soils, resulting from urbanisation, may generally influence denitrification in urban ecosystems.
The distribution of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) must be understood for the control and prevention of cervical cancer. Community-based Papanicolaou and HPV DNA tests were performed on 41 578 women. The prevalences of HPV genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66 and 68 were assessed. In total, 10% women were infected/co-infected by these HPVs. The infection rate increased from 7.1% in women aged ⩽30 years to 10.4% in those aged 50–60 years, and then decreased slightly to 9.9% in those aged >60 years. The HPV 16 and 58 positivity rates were significantly higher among women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) than among those with cervicitis/negativity for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) or low-grade SILs (LSILs). The HPV 18, 52 and 68 infection rates were significantly lower in women with HSILs than in those with NILM or LSILs. The proportion of women infected by multiple HPV strains was higher among those with HSILs. The proportions of the five most common genotypes, HPV 16, 18, 33, 52 and 58, increased with the number of co-infecting strains. HPV 16 and 58 were the high-risk HPVs in the Shanghai community and should be the focus in HPV screening and vaccination.
Plant nitrogen (N) links with many physiological progresses of crop growth and yield formation. Accurate simulation is key to predict crop growth and yield correctly. The aim of the current study was to improve the estimation of N uptake and translocation processes in the whole rice plant as well as within plant organs in the RiceGrow model by using plant and organ maximum, critical and minimum N dilution curves. The maximum and critical N (Nc) demand (obtained from the maximum and critical curves) of shoot and root and Nc demand of organs (leaf, stem and panicle) are calculated by N concentration and biomass. Nitrogen distribution among organs is computed differently pre- and post-anthesis. Pre-anthesis distribution is determined by maximum N demand with no priority among organs. In post-anthesis distribution, panicle demands are met first and then the remaining N is allocated to other organs without priority. The amount of plant N uptake depends on plant N demand and N supplied by the soil. Calibration and validation of the established model were performed on field experiments conducted in China and the Philippines with varied N rates and N split applications; results showed that this improved model can simulate the processes of N uptake and translocation well.
Vessel flexure can be triggered naturally by surgical operation, heart pulsation and body movement. It may affect the mechanical behavior of the stent and the existence of a stent may in turn cause vessel injury. In the present study, the finite element method is employed to study the interaction between stent and vessel during vessel flexure. Two- and four-link stents made of stainless steel 316L and magnesium alloy WE43 are considered. Results indicate that longitudinal deformation of the stent can be caused by vessel flexure, and the higher levels of stress exist in the link struts. The existence of the stent could induce significant stress concentration and straightened deformation on vessel wall in the course of vessel flexure. Stents with more links or made of harder materials show greater anti-deformation capability, thus inducing a more severe stress concentration and straightened deformation on the vessel wall. The bending direction also affects the mechanical performance of the vessel-stent system. The results obtained could provide useful information for better stent designs and clinical decisions.
Extensive insecticide use has led to the resistance of mosquitoes to these insecticides, posing a major barrier to mosquito control. Previous Solexa high-throughput sequencing of Culex pipiens pallens in the laboratory has revealed that the abundance of a novel microRNA (miRNA), miR-13664, was higher in a deltamethrin-sensitive (DS) strain than a deltamethrin-resistant (DR) strain. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that the miR-13664 transcript level was lower in the DR strain than in the DS strain. MiR-13664 oversupply in the DR strain increased the susceptibility of these mosquitoes to deltamethrin, whereas inhibition of miR-13664 made the DS strain more resistant to deltamethrin. Results of bioinformatic analysis, quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, luciferase assay and miR mimic/inhibitor microinjection revealed CpCYP314A1 to be a target of miR-13664. In addition, downregulation of CpCYP314A1 expression in the DR strain reduced the resistance of mosquitoes to deltamethrin. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-13664 could regulate deltamethrin resistance by interacting with CpCYP314A1, providing new insights into mosquito resistance mechanisms.