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Although parasites and microbial pathogens are both detrimental to insects, little information is currently available on the mechanism involved in how parasitized hosts balance their immune responses to defend against microbial infections. We addressed this in the present study by comparing the immune response between unparasitized and parasitized pupae of the chrysomelid beetle, Octodonta nipae (Maulik), to Escherichia coli invasion. In an in vivo survival assay, a markedly reduced number of E. coli colony-forming units per microliter was detected in parasitized pupae at 12 and 24 h post-parasitism, together with decreased phagocytosis and enhanced bactericidal activity at 12 h post-parasitism. The effects that parasitism had on the mRNA expression level of selected antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of O. nipae pupae showed that nearly all transcripts of AMPs examined were highly upregulated during the early and late parasitism stages except defensin 2B, whose mRNA expression level was downregulated at 24 h post-parasitism. Further elucidation on the main maternal fluids responsible for alteration of the primary immune response against E. coli showed that ovarian fluid increased phagocytosis at 48 h post-injection. These results indicated that the enhanced degradation of E. coli in parasitized pupae resulted mainly from the elevated bactericidal activity without observing the increased transcripts of target AMPs. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the immune responses of a parasitized host to bacterial infections.
To explore the effects of maternal nutrition on offspring muscle characteristics, a total of 56 sows were assigned to one of the four dietary groups during gestation: control (CON), or control diets supplemented with methyl donor (MET), bisphenol A (BPA), and combined BPA and MET (BPA+MET). Compared with CON offspring, MET offspring showed a higher meat redness value, but lower glycogen content in the longissimus thoracis (LT). Moreover, compared with CON offspring, MET offspring showed lower LT glycogen synthase (GS) mRNA levels at birth and the finishing stage, and increased methylation at the GS promoter. Prenatal BPA exposure reduced the pH and redness value of meat, but increased the lightness value, lactate content, glycolytic potential and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme activity in the LT muscle. Prenatal BPA exposure increased LDH mRNA levels in the LT muscle at birth and the finishing stage, and reduced methylation at the LDH promoter. Thus, maternal MET affects muscle GS and LDH expression via DNA methylation, thereby resulting in persistent effects on pork quality.
Crops often experience combined soil stresses. Root responses to soil penetration resistance (PR) and drought stress can be an important basis for crop management. In 2013/14, a 2-year experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of tillage treatment and drought stress (no irrigation for 4, 12 and 20 days during the V10–V16 growth stage) on the root length, diameter, cortex and cortical cell, and grain yield of maize (Zea mays L.) in a clayey red soil in southern China. Total root length and average root diameter were significantly correlated with soil PR and moisture. The cortical cell file number increased with soil PR and drought stress, while cortical cell size increased only with soil PR. Soil PR and moisture played different roles in maize root morphology modifications, but were both affected by tillage practices. Deep ploughing and conventional tillage increased soil moisture under severe drought stress conditions, whereas soil compaction and no-till significantly increased soil PR. The results indicate that high PR in clayey red soil was responsible for a decrease in maize root size and grain yield under drought conditions.
Despite the known heightened risk and burden of various somatic diseases in people with depression, very little is known about physical health multimorbidity (i.e. two or more physical health co-morbidities) in individuals with depression. This study explored physical health multimorbidity in people with clinical depression, subsyndromal depression and brief depressive episode across 43 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
Cross-sectional, community-based data on 190 593 individuals from 43 LMICs recruited via the World Health Survey were analysed. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to assess the association between depression and physical multimorbidity.
Overall, two, three and four or more physical health conditions were present in 7.4, 2.4 and 0.9% of non-depressive individuals compared with 17.7, 9.1 and 4.9% among people with any depressive episode, respectively. Compared with those with no depression, subsyndromal depression, brief depressive episode and depressive episode were significantly associated with 2.62, 2.14 and 3.44 times higher odds for multimorbidity, respectively. A significant positive association between multimorbidity and any depression was observed across 42 of the 43 countries, with particularly high odds ratios (ORs) in China (OR 8.84), Laos (OR 5.08), Ethiopia (OR 4.99), the Philippines (OR 4.81) and Malaysia (OR 4.58). The pooled OR for multimorbidity and depression estimated by meta-analysis across 43 countries was 3.26 (95% confident interval 2.98–3.57).
Our large multinational study demonstrates that physical health multimorbidity is increased across the depression spectrum. Public health interventions are required to address this global health problem.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a serious hospital and community-acquired infection and some strains are associated with greater severity. We investigated the clinical variability and molecular characteristics of MRSA infections in Shenzhen, China through a study at nine sentinel hospitals from January to December 2014. MRSA infections were classified as community-associated (CA-MRSA), healthcare-associated (HA-MRSA), and healthcare-associated community-onset (HACO-MRSA). In total, 812 MRSA isolates were collected and 183 of these were selected for further study. Patients with HA-MRSA infections were generally of greater age compared to other groups. Distinct body site and clinical presentations were evident in infected patients, e.g. CA-MRSA (skin and soft tissue, 53%), HA-MRSA (respiratory tract, 22%; surgical site, 20%; trauma wounds, 20%) and HACO-MRSA (mastitis, 47%). In contrast to HA-MRSA, other categories of strains were significantly more susceptible to gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and tetracycline. No resistance to vancomycin or linezolid was recorded. The predominant clonal lineage within each strain category was CC59-t437-SCCmec IV/V-agr I (CA, 51·4%; HA, 28·9%; HACO, 52·9%) which exhibited characteristics of a traditional CA clone together with agr I which is more often associated with HA clones. In conclusion, for the three categories of MRSA infections, there were significant differences in clinical characteristics of patients, but the predominant clone in each category shared a similar genetic background which suggests that transmission of MRSA strains has occurred between the community and hospitals in Shenzhen.
To evaluate the incidence rates and risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss among patients with depressive disorders.
Data for 27 547 patients with newly diagnosed depressive disorders and 27 547 subjects without depressive disorders between 2001 and 2008 were yielded from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss incidence at the end of 2011 was determined. Cumulative incidence and adjusted hazard ratio were computed.
Sudden sensorineural hearing loss incidence was 1.45 times higher in the depressive disorders group compared to the non-depressive disorders group (p = 0.0041), with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.460. A significant increased risk of developing sudden sensorineural hearing loss was noted in patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease and hyperlipidaemia (p < 0.05).
The results suggest an increased risk of developing sudden sensorineural hearing loss in patients with depressive disorders. Co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease and hyperlipidaemia significantly aggravated the risk. Depressive disorders might be considered a risk factor for sudden sensorineural hearing loss. It remains to be seen whether control of depressive disorders can decrease the incidence of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in patients with depressive disorders.
To examine and quantify the potential dose–response relationship between red and processed meat consumption and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality.
We searched MEDLINE, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, CINHAL, Scopus, the Cochrane library and reference lists of retrieved articles up to 30 November 2014 without language restrictions. We retrieved prospective cohort studies that reported risk estimates for all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality by red and/or processed meat intake levels. The dose–response relationships were estimated using data from red and processed meat intake categories in each study. Random-effects models were used to calculate pooled relative risks and 95 % confidence intervals and to incorporate between-study variations.
Nine articles with seventeen prospective cohorts were eligible in this meta-analysis, including a total of 150 328 deaths. There was evidence of a non-linear association between processed meat consumption and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, but not for cancer mortality. For processed meat, the pooled relative risk with an increase of one serving per day was 1·15 (95 % CI 1·11, 1·19) for all-cause mortality (five studies; P<0·001 for linear trend), 1·15 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·24) for cardiovascular mortality (six studies; P<0·001) and 1·08 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·11) for cancer mortality (five studies; P<0·001). Similar associations were found with total meat intake. The association between unprocessed red meat consumption and mortality risk was found in the US populations, but not in European or Asian populations.
The present meta-analysis indicates that higher consumption of total red meat and processed meat is associated with an increased risk of total, cardiovascular and cancer mortality.
We determined the prevalence and seasonality of infections by Fasciola of goats and bovine species (cattle and water buffalo) in Hubei and Anhui provinces of China. Faecal samples were collected at 2- to 3-month intervals from 200 goats in Hubei province and from 152 bovine species in Anhui province. All faecal samples were examined for the presence of parasites. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of 39 Fasciola worms from Anhui province. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in goats ranged between 3.5 and 37.0%, with mean eggs per gram (EPG) ranging between 29.0 and 166.0. Prevalence and EPG exhibited downward trends over time with significant differences. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in cattle ranged between 13.3 and 46.2% (mean EPG, 36.4–100.0), and that of water buffalo ranged between 10.3 and 35.4% (mean EPG, 25.0–89.6), with a higher prevalence of infection and EPG from June to October compared with December to March. Analysis of ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences revealed that F. hepatica and F. gigantica were present in all bovine species of Anhui province and that F. gigantica mainly infected water buffalo. This is the first demonstration of Fasciola infection in Hubei province and detection of F. hepatica and F. gigantica in Anhui province. The present study of Hubei province shows that mass treatment of livestock with closantel sodium injections in April and August/September controlled Fasciola infection effectively.
Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) is a secreted protein that regulates lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. This study was conducted to better understand the effect of ANGPTL3 on important economic traits in cattle. First, transcript profiles for ANGPTL3 were measured in nine different Jiaxian cattle tissues. Second, polymorphisms were identified in the complete coding region and promoter region of the bovine ANGPTL3 gene in 707 cattle samples. Finally, an association study was carried out utilizing these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to determine the effect of these SNPs on the growth and meat quality traits. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that ANGPTL3 was mainly expressed in the liver. The promoter of the bovine ANGPTL3 contained several putative transcription factor binding sites (SF1, HNF-1, LXRα, NFκβ, HNF-3 and C/EBP). In total, four SNPs of the bovine ANGPTL3 gene were identified by direct sequencing. SNP1 (rs469906272: g.−38T>C) was identified in the promoter, SNP2 (rs451104723:g.104A>T) and SNP3 (rs482516226: g.509A>G) were identified in exon 1, and SNP4 (rs477165942: g.8661T>C) was identified in exon 6. Changes in predicted protein structures due to non-synonymous SNPs were analyzed. Haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium were also investigated. Analysis of four SNPs in cattle from different native Chinese breeds (Nanyang (NY) and Jiaxian (JX)) and commercial breeds (Angus (AG), Hereford (HF), Limousin (LM), Luxi (LX), Simmental (ST) and Jinnan (JN)) revealed a significant association with growth traits (including: BW and hipbone width) and meat quality traits (including: Warner–Bratzler shear force and ribeye area). Therefore, implementation of these four mutations in selection indices in the beef industry may be beneficial in selecting individuals with superior growth and meat quality traits.
Grasshopper plagues have seriously disturbed grassland ecosystems in Inner Mongolia, China. The accurate prediction of grasshopper infestations and control of grasshopper plagues have become urgent needs. We sampled 234, 342, 335, and 369 plots in Xianghuangqi County of Xilingol League in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively, and measured the density of the most dominant grasshopper species, Oedaleus decorus asiaticus, and the latitude, longitude, and associated relatively stable habitat factors at each plot. We used Excel–GeogDetector software to explore the effects of individual habitat factors and the two-factor interactions on grasshopper density. We estimated the membership of each grasshopper density rank and determined the weights of each habitat category. These results were used to construct a model system evaluating grasshopper habitat suitability. The results showed that our evaluation system was reliable and the fuzzy evaluation scores of grasshopper habitat suitability were good indicators of potential occurrence of grasshoppers. The effects of the two-factor interactions on grasshopper density were greater than the effects of any individual factors. O. d. asiaticus was most likely to be found at elevations of 1300–1400 m, flat terrain or slopes of 4–6°, typical chestnut soil with 70–80% sand content in the top 5 cm of soil, and medium-coverage grassland. The species preferred temperate bunchgrass steppe dominated by Stipa krylovii and Cleistogenes squarrosa. These findings may be used to improve models to predict grasshopper occurrence and to develop management guidelines to control grasshopper plagues by changing habitats.
Central line–associated bloodstream infection (BSI) rates are a key quality metric for comparing hospital quality and safety. Traditional BSI surveillance may be limited by interrater variability. We assessed whether a computer-automated method of central line–associated BSI detection can improve the validity of surveillance.
Retrospective cohort study.
Eight medical and surgical intensive care units (ICUs) in 4 academic medical centers.
Traditional surveillance (by hospital staff) and computer algorithm surveillance were each compared against a retrospective audit review using a random sample of blood culture episodes during the period 2004–2007 from which an organism was recovered. Episode-level agreement with audit review was measured with κ statistics, and differences were assessed using the test of equal κ coefficients. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between surveillance performance (κ) and surveillance-reported BSI rates (BSIs per 1,000 central line–days).
We evaluated 664 blood culture episodes. Agreement with audit review was significantly lower for traditional surveillance (κ [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 0.44 [0.37–0.51]) than computer algorithm surveillance (κ [95% CI] [0.52–0.64]; P = .001). Agreement between traditional surveillance and audit review was heterogeneous across ICUs (P = .001); furthermore, traditional surveillance performed worse among ICUs reporting lower (better) BSI rates (P = .001). In contrast, computer algorithm performance was consistent across ICUs and across the range of computer-reported central line–associated BSI rates.
Compared with traditional surveillance of bloodstream infections, computer automated surveillance improves accuracy and reliability, making interfacility performance comparisons more valid.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(12):1483–1490
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of rumen-protected γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on feed intake, growth performance and expression of related genes in growing lambs. A total of 24 lambs weaned at age of 50 days were divided into four block of six based on their BW, six lambs within a block were allocated to three pairs, which were then assigned randomly to three treatments with addition of rumen-protected GABA at levels of 0, 70 or 140 mg/day for 6 weeks. Dry matter intake was recorded weekly in three consecutive days, and BW was recorded every two weeks. At the end of the trial, four lambs from each group were slaughtered, and duodenum and ileum mucosa were obtained for measurement of mRNA abundance of GABA receptor and cholecystokinin receptor. Dry matter intake was higher (P<0.01) in the lambs fed 140 mg/day GABA than that in the control or 70 mg GABA-fed lambs. Average daily gain and nutrients digestibility were not different (P>0.05) among treatments. Lambs fed 140 mg/day GABA had higher mRNA abundance of GABA-B receptor (P<0.01) and lower mRNA abundance of cholecystokinin-2 receptor (P<0.01) in duodenum mucosa. Serum CCK content was lower (P<0.01) in lambs fed 140 mg/day GABA than that in control. It is indicated that GABA may enhance feed intake by regulating GABA- and cholecystokinin-related genes.
In this talk, we will show the beaming effect for Fermi/LAT blazars, then we discuss the correlations between γ-ray luminosity and other parameters, such as radio Doppler factors, superluminal motions, and core-dominance parameters. We also compare the Doppler factors determined from the γ-ray luminosity, X-ray emissions, and the short-term time scales with those from other methods. Our discussions suggest that γ-ray emissions may be strongly beamed.
Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is known as a crucial enzyme of cellular de novo fatty acid synthesis in mammary gland which has been proved as the main source of short and medium-chain fatty acids of milk. However, the regulatory role of FASN in goat-specific milk fatty acids composition remains unclear. We cloned and analyzed the full-length of FASN gene from the mammary gland of Capra hircus (Xinong Saanen dairy goat) (DQ 915966). Comparative gene expression analysis suggested that FASN is predominantly expressed in fat, small intestine and mammary gland tissues, and expresses higher level at lactation period. Inhibition of FASN activity by different concentrations (0, 5, 15, 25 and 35 μM) of orlistat, a natural inhibitor of FASN, resulted in decreased expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACCα), lipoprotein lipase and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in a concentration-dependent manner in goat mammary gland epithelial cells (GMEC). Similar results were also obtained by silencing of FASN. Additionally, reduction of FASN expression also led to apparent decline of the relative content of decanoic acid (C10:0) and lauric acid (C12:0) in GMEC. Our study provides a direct evidence for inhibition of FASN reduces cellular medium-chain fatty acids synthesis in GMEC.
Altered levels of selenium and copper have been linked with altered cardiovascular disease risk factors including changes in blood triglyceride and cholesterol levels. However, it is unclear whether this can be observed prenatally. This cross-sectional study includes 274 singleton births from 2004 to 2005 in Baltimore, Maryland. We measured umbilical cord serum selenium and copper using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We evaluated exposure levels vis-à-vis umbilical cord serum triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations in multivariable regression models adjusted for gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, race, parity, smoking, prepregnancy body mass index, n-3 fatty acids and methyl mercury. The percent difference in triglycerides comparing those in the highest v. lowest quartile of selenium was 22.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.1, 39.7). For copper this was 43.8% (95% CI: 25.9, 64.3). In multivariable models including both copper and selenium as covariates, copper, but not selenium, maintained a statistically significant association with increased triglycerides (percent difference: 40.7%, 95% CI: 22.1, 62.1). There was limited evidence of a relationship of increasing selenium with increasing total cholesterol. Our findings provide evidence that higher serum copper levels are associated with higher serum triglycerides in newborns, but should be confirmed in larger studies.
We evaluated the effectiveness of daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing in decreasing skin carriage of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase–producing Enterobacteriaceae (KPC) among long-term acute care hospital patients. CHG bathing reduced KPC skin colonization, particularly when CHG skin concentrations greater than or equal to 128 μg/mL were achieved.
To identify differences in organizational culture and better understand motivators to implementation of abundle intervention to control Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase–producing Enterobacteriaceae (KPC).
Four long-term acute care hospitals (LTACHs) in Chicago.
LTACH staff across 3 strata of employees (administration, midlevel management, and frontline clinical workers).
Qualitative interviews or focus groups and completion of a quantitative questionnaire.
Eighty employees (frontline, 72.5%; midlevel, 17.5%; administration, 10%) completed surveys and participated in qualitative discussions in August 2012. Although 82.3% of respondents felt that quality improvement was a priority at their LTACH, there were statistically significant differences in organizational culture between staff strata, with administrative-level having higher organizational culture scores (ie, more favorable responses) than midlevel or frontline staff. When asked to rank the success of the KPC control program, mean response was 8.0 (95% confidence interval, 7.6–8.5), indicating a high level of agreement with the perception that the program was a success. Patient safety and personal safety were reported most often as personal motivators for intervention adherence. The most convergent theme related to prevention across groups was that proper hand hygiene is vital to prevention of KPC transmission.
Despite differences in organizational culture across 3 strata of LTACH employees, the high degree of convergence in motivation, understanding, and beliefs related to implementation of a KPC control bundle suggests that all levels of staff may be able to align perspectives when faced with a key infection control problem and quality improvement initiative.
Three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear after intratympanic injection of gadolinium, together with magnetic resonance imaging scoring of the perilymphatic space, were used to investigate the positive identification rate of hydrops and determine the technique's diagnostic value for delayed endolymphatic hydrops.
Twenty-five patients with delayed endolymphatic hydrops underwent pure tone audiometry, bithermal caloric testing, vestibular-evoked myogenic potential testing and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear after bilateral intratympanic injection of gadolinium. The perilymphatic space of the scanned images was analysed to investigate the positive identification rate of endolymphatic hydrops.
According to the magnetic resonance imaging scoring of the perilymphatic space and the diagnostic standard, 84 per cent of the patients examined had endolymphatic hydrops. In comparison, the positive identification rates for vestibular-evoked myogenic potential and bithermal caloric testing were 52 per cent and 72 per cent respectively.
Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging after intratympanic injection of gadolinium is valuable in the diagnosis of delayed endolymphatic hydrops and its classification. The perilymphatic space scoring system improved the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging.
Residual stress in MEMS is of inherent importance in various respects. This study proposes a specific method using ANSYS including the birth and death method and combined with the optimal method (SCGM) to reduce the residual stresses during the CMOS fabrication process. The suitable cooling temperature for decreasing the residual stress is proposed and available. It demonstrates that the suitable parameter on the fabrication can reduce the residual stress in MEMS devices without any extra manufacturing process or external apparatus. The proposed method can expand to simulate the realistic MEMS model effectively.