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Crystal structure and electronic structure of YMnO3 were investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy related techniques. According to the density of states (DOS), the individual interband transitions to energy loss peaks in the low energy loss spectrum were assigned. The hybridization of O 2p with Mn 3d and Y 4d analyzed by the partial DOS was critical to the ferroelectric nature of YMnO3. From the simulation of the energy loss near-edge structure, the fine structure of O K-edge was in good agreement with the experimental spectrum. The valence state of Mn (+3) in YMnO3 was determined by a comparison between experiment and calculations.
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) possess enzymes required for the endogenous biosynthesis of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), from α-linolenic acid (ALA). Linoleic acid (LA) competes with ALA for LC-PUFA biosynthesis enzymes leading to the production of n-6 LC-PUFA, including arachidonic acid (ARA). We aimed to quantify the endogenous production of EPA and DHA from ALA in salmon fed from first feeding on diets that contain no EPA and DHA, and to determine the influence of dietary LA and ALA:LA ratio on LC-PUFA production. Salmon were fed from first feeding for 22 weeks with three diets formulated with linseed and sunflower oils to provide ALA:LA ratios of approximately 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3. Endogenous production of n-3 LC-PUFA was 5.9, 4.4 and 2.8 mg per g fish and that of n-6 LC-PUFA was 0.2, 0.5 and 1.4 mg per g of fish in salmon fed diets with ALA:LA ratios of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3, respectively. The ratio of n-3:n-6 LC-PUFA production decreased from 27.4 to 2.0, and DHA:EPA ratio increased and EPA:ARA and DHA:ARA ratios decreased, as dietary ALA:LA ratio decreased. In conclusion, with a dietary ALA:LA ratio of 1, salmon fry/parr produced around 28 μg n-3 LC-PUFA per g of fish per day, with a DHA:EPA ratio of 3.4. Production of n-3 LC-PUFA exceeded that of n-6 LC-PUFA by almost 9-fold. Reducing the dietary ALA:LA ratio reduced n-3 LC-PUFA production, and EPA:ARA and DHA:ARA ratios, and increased n-6 LC-PUFA production, and DHA:EPA ratio.
Replicate radiocarbon (14C) measurements of organic and inorganic control samples, with known Fraction Modern values in the range Fm = 0–1.5 and mass range 6 μg–2 mg carbon, are used to determine both the mass and radiocarbon content of the blank carbon introduced during sample processing and measurement in our laboratory. These data are used to model, separately for organic and inorganic samples, the blank contribution and subsequently “blank correct” measured unknowns in the mass range 25–100 μg. Data, formulas, and an assessment of the precision and accuracy of the blank correction are presented.
In this study, for the first time, chemically modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were used as a conductive additive in the cathode composite for lithium–sulfur batteries. Oxidation of pure CNTs has been carried out using modified Hummers’ method, and to partially remove oxygen groups from the CNT surface and increase their electronic conductivity, oxidized CNTs have been hydrothermally treated. The cathode slurry was mixed in water with a water-soluble LA133 binder. Despite the decrease in electronic conductivity of CNTs after chemical treatment, the presence of structural defects and oxygen groups provides uniform distribution of modified CNTs in the sulfur-based composite, which results in more than twice higher electrode specific capacity compared with the electrodes comprising pure CNTs. Using chemically modified CNTs as a conductive additive is proposed as an effective way for the preparation of nontoxic and cost-effective water-based cathode slurries in lithium–sulfur batteries.
Starch digestion in the small intestines of the dairy cow is low, to a large extent, due to a shortage of syntheses of α-amylase. One strategy to improve the situation is to enhance the synthesis of α-amylase. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway, which acts as a central regulator of protein synthesis, can be activated by leucine. Our objectives were to investigate the effects of leucine on the mTOR signalling pathway and to define the associations between these signalling activities and the synthesis of pancreatic enzymes using an in vitro model of cultured Holstein dairy calf pancreatic tissue. The pancreatic tissue was incubated in culture medium containing l-leucine for 3 h, and samples were collected hourly, with the control being included but not containing l-leucine. The leucine supplementation increased α-amylase and trypsin activities and the messenger RNA expression of their coding genes (P <0.05), and it enhanced the mTOR synthesis and the phosphorylation of mTOR, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (P <0.05). In addition, rapamycin inhibited the mTOR signal pathway factors during leucine treatment. In sum, the leucine regulates α-amylase and trypsin synthesis in dairy calves through the regulation of the mTOR signal pathways.
Starchy grain is usually supplemented to diets containing low-quality forage to provide sufficient energy for ruminant animals. Ruminal degradation of grain starch mainly depends on the hydrolysis of the endosperm, which may be variable among grain sources. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of endosperm structure of wheat and corn on in vitro rumen fermentation and nitrogen (N) utilization of rice straw. The 3×4 factorial design included three ratios of concentrate to forage (35:65, 50:50 and 65:35) and four ratios of wheat to corn starch (20:80, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20). The endosperm structure was detected by scanning electronic microscopy and a confocal laser scanning microscopic. An in vitro gas test was performed to evaluate the rumen fermentation characteristics and N utilization. Starch granules were embedded in the starch–protein matrix in corn, but more granules were separated from the matrix in the wheat endosperm. With the increasing ratio of wheat, rate and extent of gas production, total volatile fatty acids, and ammonia N increased linearly (P<0.01), but microbial protein concentration decreased (quadratic, P<0.01), with the maximum value at a ratio of 40% wheat. The efficiency of N utilization decreased linearly (P<0.01). Rumen fermentation and N utilization were significantly affected by the concentrate-to-forage ratio (P<0.01). Significant interactions between the concentrate-to-forage ratio and the wheat-to-corn ratio were detected in total volatile fatty acids and the efficiency of N utilization (P<0.01). In summary, the starch–protein matrix and starch granules in the wheat and corn endosperm mixture play an important role in the regulation of rumen fermentation and N utilization under low-quality forage.
The consequences of urbanisation for Earth's biogeochemical cycles are largely unexplored. Copper (Cu) in urban soils is being accumulated mainly due to anthropogenic activities under rapid urbanisation. The increasing Cu concentrations may contribute to altering soil nitrogen (N) cycling in urban ecosystems through modulating denitrification processes. This research aims to identify how Cu impacts urban soil denitrification functions and denitrifier abundance. An urban park soil with a background total Cu concentration of 7.9μgg–1 was incubated anaerobically with different Cu amendments (10, 20, 40, 80 and 160μg Cu g–1 soil), similar to prevalent Cu contents in urban soils. We evaluated the soil denitrification functions using the acetylene (C2H2) inhibition method and assessed the denitrifier abundance by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses of denitrifying marker genes (nirK, nirS and nosZ). At the function level, we observed that both the potential soil denitrification activity and the N2O emission rate due to denitrification were significantly (P<0.05) inhibited by Cu; even the lowest Cu addition (10μg Cu g–1 soil) drastically affected the denitrification function. Moreover, Cu significantly (P<0.05) decreased the abundance of nirK and nirS genes at the additions of 160μg Cu g–1 soil and 40μg Cu g–1 soil, respectively, whereas it had no clear impact on nosZ gene copies. Further correlation analyses revealed that the potential denitrification activity was positively correlated to the copy numbers of nirK and nirS genes, but it was not correlated to nosZ gene abundance. These findings indicate that Cu additions inhibited soil denitrification function and decreased denitrifier abundance in the investigated urban park soil. Our results suggest that Cu accumulation in urban soils, resulting from urbanisation, may generally influence denitrification in urban ecosystems.
The distribution of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) must be understood for the control and prevention of cervical cancer. Community-based Papanicolaou and HPV DNA tests were performed on 41 578 women. The prevalences of HPV genotypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66 and 68 were assessed. In total, 10% women were infected/co-infected by these HPVs. The infection rate increased from 7.1% in women aged ⩽30 years to 10.4% in those aged 50–60 years, and then decreased slightly to 9.9% in those aged >60 years. The HPV 16 and 58 positivity rates were significantly higher among women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) than among those with cervicitis/negativity for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) or low-grade SILs (LSILs). The HPV 18, 52 and 68 infection rates were significantly lower in women with HSILs than in those with NILM or LSILs. The proportion of women infected by multiple HPV strains was higher among those with HSILs. The proportions of the five most common genotypes, HPV 16, 18, 33, 52 and 58, increased with the number of co-infecting strains. HPV 16 and 58 were the high-risk HPVs in the Shanghai community and should be the focus in HPV screening and vaccination.
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
Extensive insecticide use has led to the resistance of mosquitoes to these insecticides, posing a major barrier to mosquito control. Previous Solexa high-throughput sequencing of Culex pipiens pallens in the laboratory has revealed that the abundance of a novel microRNA (miRNA), miR-13664, was higher in a deltamethrin-sensitive (DS) strain than a deltamethrin-resistant (DR) strain. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that the miR-13664 transcript level was lower in the DR strain than in the DS strain. MiR-13664 oversupply in the DR strain increased the susceptibility of these mosquitoes to deltamethrin, whereas inhibition of miR-13664 made the DS strain more resistant to deltamethrin. Results of bioinformatic analysis, quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, luciferase assay and miR mimic/inhibitor microinjection revealed CpCYP314A1 to be a target of miR-13664. In addition, downregulation of CpCYP314A1 expression in the DR strain reduced the resistance of mosquitoes to deltamethrin. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-13664 could regulate deltamethrin resistance by interacting with CpCYP314A1, providing new insights into mosquito resistance mechanisms.
The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, is an important pest in many commercial orchards including apple, pear and peach orchards, and responsible for substantial economic losses every year. To help in attaining a comprehensive and thorough understanding of the ecological tolerances of G. molesta, we collected life history data of individuals reared on apples under different constant temperature regimes and compared the data with moths reared under a variable outdoor temperature environment. Because G. molesta individuals reared at a constant 25°C had the heaviest pupal weight, the highest survival rate from egg to adult, highest finite rate of increase, and greatest fecundity, 25°C was considered as the optimum developmental temperature. The G. molesta population reared at a constant 31°C had the shortest development time, lowest survival rate and fecundity, resulting in population parameters of r < 0, λ < 1, lead to negative population growth. The population parameters r and λ reared under fluctuating temperature were higher than that reared under constant temperatures, the mean generation time (T) was shorter than it was in all of the constant temperatures treatments. This would imply that the outdoor G. molesta population would have a higher population growth potential and faster growth rate than indoor populations raised at constant temperatures. G. molesta moths reared under fluctuating temperature also had a higher fertility than moths reared under constant temperatures (except at 25°C). Our findings indicated that the population raised under outdoor fluctuating temperature conditions had strong environment adaptiveness.
Records of absenteeism from primary schools are valuable data for infectious diseases surveillance. However, the analysis of the absenteeism is complicated by the data features of clustering at zero, non-independence and overdispersion. This study aimed to generate an appropriate model to handle the absenteeism data collected in a European Commission granted project for infectious disease surveillance in rural China and to evaluate the validity and timeliness of the resulting model for early warnings of infectious disease outbreak. Four steps were taken: (1) building a ‘well-fitting’ model by the zero-inflated Poisson model with random effects (ZIP-RE) using the absenteeism data from the first implementation year; (2) applying the resulting model to predict the ‘expected’ number of absenteeism events in the second implementation year; (3) computing the differences between the observations and the expected values (O–E values) to generate an alternative series of data; (4) evaluating the early warning validity and timeliness of the observational data and model-based O–E values via the EARS-3C algorithms with regard to the detection of real cluster events. The results indicate that ZIP-RE and its corresponding O–E values could improve the detection of aberrations, reduce the false-positive signals and are applicable to the zero-inflated data.
Compulsory admission can be experienced as devaluing and stigmatising by people with mental illness. Emotional reactions to involuntary hospitalisation and stigma-related stress may affect recovery, but longitudinal data are lacking. We, therefore, examined the impact of stigma-related emotional reactions and stigma stress on recovery over a 2-year period.
Shame and self-contempt as emotional reactions to involuntary hospitalisation, stigma stress, self-stigma and empowerment, as well as recovery were assessed among 186 individuals with serious mental illness and a history of recent involuntary hospitalisation.
More shame, self-contempt and stigma stress at baseline were correlated with increased self-stigma and reduced empowerment after 1 year. More stigma stress at baseline was associated with poor recovery after 2 years. In a longitudinal path analysis more stigma stress at baseline predicted poorer recovery after 2 years, mediated by decreased empowerment after 1 year, controlling for age, gender, symptoms and recovery at baseline.
Stigma stress may have a lasting detrimental effect on recovery among people with mental illness and a history of involuntary hospitalisation. Anti-stigma interventions that reduce stigma stress and programs that enhance empowerment could improve recovery. Future research should test the effect of such interventions on recovery.
To explore the effects of maternal nutrition on offspring muscle characteristics, a total of 56 sows were assigned to one of the four dietary groups during gestation: control (CON), or control diets supplemented with methyl donor (MET), bisphenol A (BPA), and combined BPA and MET (BPA+MET). Compared with CON offspring, MET offspring showed a higher meat redness value, but lower glycogen content in the longissimus thoracis (LT). Moreover, compared with CON offspring, MET offspring showed lower LT glycogen synthase (GS) mRNA levels at birth and the finishing stage, and increased methylation at the GS promoter. Prenatal BPA exposure reduced the pH and redness value of meat, but increased the lightness value, lactate content, glycolytic potential and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme activity in the LT muscle. Prenatal BPA exposure increased LDH mRNA levels in the LT muscle at birth and the finishing stage, and reduced methylation at the LDH promoter. Thus, maternal MET affects muscle GS and LDH expression via DNA methylation, thereby resulting in persistent effects on pork quality.
A model of Twin-cell Composite Box Beam (TCCBB), which is composed of concrete plate and thin-walled steel box beam with twin-cell, is proposed in this paper. Combined with structural features, longitudinal interfacial slip mode (LISM) and related shear hysteresis functions (SHFS) of this TCCBB model are defined respectively; analytical formulation describing combination effect between interfacial slip and shear lag is launched for this TCCBB model under even load. Based on established governing differential equations and its relative boundary conditions (calculated with compatible mechanism of interfacial slip and shear lag effect), closed form solutions of normal stress and shear stress are derived for this TCCBB model, as well as effective shear-lag coefficient and effective coupled behavior coefficient. To obtain more accurate computational results of specific coupled mechanism of this TCCBB model, numerical example is carried out to analyze and predict coupled mechanism of interfacial slip and shear lag effect for this type of composite structures.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To compare the accuracy and precision for estimating the diagnostic accuracies (sensitivities and specificities) between differential verification (DV) and partial verification (PV) methods. Comparisons were made under scenarios with different values of design parameters including disease prevalence, proportion of verification for positive results, proportion of verification for negative result, sensitivity and specificity of the brass standard (BS) test in DV method. Through comparing 2 different verification methods under different scenarios, we give suggestions that which verification method is optimal under different design settings. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: For both PV and DV methods, simulation studies were performed using statistical package R, version 3.1.3. We were primarily interested in studying how the unbiasedness and precision for estimation of diagnostic accuracies (sensitivity and specificity) of an index test change with the following design parameters: disease prevalence, proportion of verification for positive test results, the proportion of verification for negative test results, and the sensitivity and specificity of a BS test. We chose different values for each of the above parameters. For each estimation, we allowed values in only 1 parameter to change by fixing the other 2 parameters, so that the effect of each design parameter on the unbiasedness and precision of both sensitivity and specificity can be determined. For the DV method, we also developed an analytical method to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of an index test using a quadratic equation with a unique solution of the specificity and sensitivity. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: For rare disease with prevalence less than 1%, the PV method resulted in a less biased and more precise estimate of sensitivities and specificities of the index test. If the disease prevalence was between 1% and 10%, the DV method using a BS test with moderate or high sensitivity and specificity (sensitivity and specificity >90%) resulted in a less biased and more precise estimate of diagnostic accuracies of the index test. When the disease prevalence was greater than 10%, the PV method was superior when the BS test had sensitivity and specificity <80%, and the DV method was superior when the BS test had both sensitivity and specificity >90%. When the proportion of verification of positive test results was <30% or >70%, the DV method yielded smaller bias for the estimated specificity than the PV method. However, the PV method generated a much smaller mean square error (MSE) for specificity than the DV method when the proportion of verification for positive test results was >50%. Although the disease prevalence was >10% and the proportion of verification of positive test results was <30%, the DV method resulted in a smaller MSE for specificity. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Disease prevalence and proportions of verification for patients with positive and negative test results influence the accuracy of a new diagnostic test. If a new index test for a very rare disease is evaluated, the PV method should be used for assessing the performance of the index test. When a disease prevalence is >1%, the DV method will result in a less biased and more precise estimate of diagnostic accuracy of an index test, if the BS test itself used in the DV method has large specificity and specificity. One concern of using BS test for the DV method is the clinical cost. Depending on the disease type, the BS tests usually are imperfect, but may be less aggressive and/or less expensive than the gold standard test. Moreover, as all clinical examinations require professional personnel to perform, verification of the index test for relative large proportion of a large cohort of patients could become a burden on human resources. Thus, the future research of the optimal design method for a diagnostic accuracy study should be based on the comprehensive cost-effectiveness analysis.
The SUERC Radiocarbon Laboratory employs a one-step “background subtraction” method when calculating 14C ages. An interglacial wood (VIRI Sample K) is employed as the non-bone organic background standard, while a mammoth bone (LQH12) from Latton Quarry is used as the bone background standard. Results over several years demonstrate that the bone background is consistently around a factor of two higher and more variable than the wood background. As a result, the uncertainty on routine bone measurements is higher than for other sample types. This study investigates the factors that may contribute to the difference in F14C values and the higher variability. Preparations of collagen using modified Longin or ultrafiltration methods show no significant difference, nor does eliminating the collagen dissolution step. Two bone samples of known infinite age with respect to radiocarbon are compared and again no significant difference is observed. Finally, the quantity and age of the organic matter in the water used during the pretreatment is investigated and it is shown that there is insufficient organic matter in the reverse osmosis water to influence background values significantly. The attention is now on determining if incomplete demineralization could lead to contaminants being retained by the phosphate in the hydroxyapatite.
Advances in infrared astronomy and in computing power have recently opened up an interesting area of the solar system for dynamical exploration. The survey of the sky made by The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) in 1983 revealed the complex structure of the zodiacal dust cloud. We now know the inclination and nodes of the plane of symmetry of the cloud with respect to the ecliptic and we have evidence that the cloud is not rotationally symmetric with respect to the Sun. Of even more interest is the discovery by IRAS of prominent dust bands that circle the Sun in planes near-parallel to the ecliptic. In 1984, we suggested (Dermott et al., Nature, 312, 505-509) that the solar system dust bands discovered by IRAS are produced by the gradual comminution of the asteroids in the major Hirayama asteroid families. The confirmation of this hypothesis has involved: (1) The development of a new secular perturbation theory that includes the effects of Poynting-Robertson light drag on the evolution of the dust particle orbits; (2) The production of a new high resolution Zodiacal History File by IPAC (the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center at Caltech); (3) The development of the SIMUL code: a three-dimensional numerical model that allows the calculation of the thermal flux produced by any particular distribution of dust particle orbits. SIMUL includes the effects of planetary perturbations and PR drag on the dust particle orbits and reproduces the exact viewing geometry of the IRAS telescope. We report that these tools allow us to account in detail for the observed structure of the dust bands. They also allow us to show that there is evidence in the IRAS data for the transport of asteroidal dust from the main belt to the Earth by Poynting-Robertson light drag.
The new definition of UT1 adopted by the IAU is useful but for many reasons not quite satisfactory. It depends e. g., 1) on the approximate values of some astronomical constants, and is therefore subject to revision in the future. 2) Since it is used for the FK5-based astronomical reference system, its eventual usefulness for space techniques is questioned. 3) Although the new and old UT1 merge continuously at a chosen epoch, they do not form a homogeneous series of data, in other words, the old and the new UT1 are systematically different from each other. 4) Neither the new definition, nor the way to convert the old to the new one is based on simple concepts and these are thus likely to be misunderstood by the nonspecialist user. A conceptual definition of UT1 is suggested, in order to correct this situation and a formula to realize this conceptual definition is presented, which can be used unchanged for every technique and is easily understood by the nonspecialist community.
Upgraded heating and current drive (H/CD) systems have been equipped on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). With the upgraded H/CD systems, the operation space of EAST is extended, and the ability to achieve higher performance is improved. In this paper, a 0.5 dimension transport code named Minute Embedded Tokamak Integrated Simulator (METIS) is applied to predict the EAST operation space and to assess the current drive capability of the 4.6 GHz lower hybrid current drive system. Predictive simulation of several EAST scenarios, including steady-state high confinement mode (H-mode), advanced regime, high normalized beta and high electron temperature, are also performed with the available H/CD systems. The simulation results provide a guidance for forthcoming advanced EAST experiments.