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We implemented a cross-sectional study in Tana River County, Kenya, a Rift Valley fever (RVF)-endemic area, to quantify the strength of association between RVF virus (RVFv) seroprevalences in livestock and humans, and their respective intra-cluster correlation coefficients (ICCs). The study involved 1932 livestock from 152 households and 552 humans from 170 households. Serum samples were collected and screened for anti-RVFv immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using inhibition IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data collected were analysed using generalised linear mixed effects models, with herd/household and village being fitted as random variables. The overall RVFv seroprevalences in livestock and humans were 25.41% (95% confidence interval (CI) 23.49–27.42%) and 21.20% (17.86–24.85%), respectively. The presence of at least one seropositive animal in a household was associated with an increased odds of exposure in people of 2.23 (95% CI 1.03–4.84). The ICCs associated with RVF virus seroprevalence in livestock were 0.30 (95% CI 0.19–0.44) and 0.22 (95% CI 0.12–0.38) within and between herds, respectively. These findings suggest that there is a greater variability of RVF virus exposure between than within herds. We discuss ways of using these ICC estimates in observational surveys for RVF in endemic areas and postulate that the design of the sentinel herd surveillance should consider patterns of RVF clustering to enhance its effectiveness as an early warning system for RVF epidemics.
The purpose of this note is to investigate the properties of a mapping α, of a Boolean algebra A into itself, which satisfies the functional equation α(p·aq) = ap·aq, where the multiplication is infimum. This is the so-called averaging identity of Kampé de Fériét. Garrett Birkhoff has noted (2) the occurrence of this identity both in the statistical theory of turbulence and in mathematical logic. That this is more than coincidence is shown by the existence of an explicit connection between the notion of quantification in logic and certain non-linear "extremal operators" in function algebras (16). Certain linear operators are associated in a natural way with these extremal operators.
Trait impulsivity is thought to play a key role in predicting behaviors on the externalizing spectrum, such as drug and alcohol use and aggression. Research suggests that impulsivity may not be a unitary construct, but rather multidimensional in nature with dimensions varying across self-report assessments and laboratory behavioral tasks. Few studies with large samples have included a range of impulsivity-related measures and assessed several externalizing behaviors to clarify the predictive validity of these assessments on important life outcomes.
Community adults (N = 1295) between the ages of 30 and 54 completed a multidimensional assessment of impulsivity-related traits (including 54 self-report scales of personality traits implicated in impulsive behaviors, and four behavioral tasks purporting to assess a construct similar to impulsivity) and reported on five externalizing behavioral outcomes (i.e. drug, alcohol, and cigarette use, and physical and verbal aggression). We ran an exploratory factor analysis on the trait scales, and then a structural equation model predicting the externalizing behaviors from the three higher-order personality factors (i.e. Disinhibition v. Constraint/Conscientiousness, Neuroticism/Negative Emotionality, and Extraversion/Positive Emotionality) and the four behavioral tasks.
Relations between the self-report factors and behavioral tasks were small or nonexistent. Associations between the self-report factors and the externalizing outcomes were generally medium to large, but relationships between the behavioral tasks and externalizing outcomes were either nonexistent or small.
These results partially replicate and extend recent meta-analytic findings reported by Sharma et al. (2014) to further clarify the predictive validity of impulsivity-related trait scales and laboratory behavioral tasks on externalizing behaviors.
In 2014, the Southeastern Archaeological Conference (SEAC) conducted a sexual harassment survey of its membership. The survey's goal was to investigate whether sexual harassment had occurred among its members, and if so, to document the rate and demographics of harassment. Our findings include a high (66%) level of harassment, primarily among women, with an additional 13% of respondents reporting sexual assault. This article provides an overview of the survey and responses. Additionally, we analyze survey data aimed at capturing change over time in harassment and assault, correlation between field and non-field tasks and harassment and assault, and correlation between gender of supervisor and harassment and assault. We also discuss the effects of harassment and assault on careers. We conclude with suggestions for decreasing the rate of harassment and assault and urge professional archaeological organizations to document sexual harassment and assault to mitigate the effects on their members and on the discipline as a whole.
To characterize the microbiology of hepatobiliary surgical site infections (SSIs) and to explore the relationship between specific antimicrobial prophylaxis regimens and the development of SSIs.
Retrospective matched case-control study comparing patient, procedure, and antimicrobial prophylaxis characteristics among patients undergoing a hepatobiliary surgical procedure with and without an SSI.
A tertiary referral acute-care facility.
Patients undergoing procedures defined as “BILI” (bile duct, liver, or pancreas surgery) using National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definitions, excluding those undergoing concomitant liver transplantation, from January 2013 through June 2016 were included in the study population. The SSIs were identified through routine infection control surveillance using NHSN definitions. All patients who developed an SSI were considered cases. Controls were selected randomly matched 2:1 with cases based on fiscal quarter of the procedure. Logistic regression modeling was performed to explore variables associated with SSI, including antimicrobial prophylaxis received.
Among 975 procedures, 80 (8.2%) resulted in an SSI. Most cases involved an organism nonsusceptible to standard prophylaxis regimens, including cefazolin (68.8%), cefazolin plus metronidazole (61.3%), and ampicillin-sulbactam (52.5%). In a multivariate model, antimicrobial coverage against Enterococcus spp (aOR, 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17–2.04; P=.40) and against Pseudomonas spp (aOR, 2.40; 95% CI, 0.56–10.29; P=.24) were not protective against the development of an SSI. The presence of a documented β-lactam allergy was significantly associated with the development of an SSI (aOR, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.36–9.19; P=.009).
Although SSIs at the study institution were associated with pathogens nonsusceptible to the most commonly used prophylaxis regimens, broader-spectrum coverage was not associated with a reduction in SSIs.
Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is a safe and effective alternative to prolonged inpatient stays for patients requiring long-term intravenous antimicrobials, but antimicrobial-associated adverse events remain a significant challenge. Thus, we sought to measure the association between choice of antimicrobial agent (vancomycin vs daptomycin) and incidence of adverse drug events (ADEs).
Patients receiving OPAT treatment with vancomycin or daptomycin for skin and soft-tissue infections, bone and joint infections, endocarditis, and bacteremia or endovascular infections during the period from July 1, 2013, through September 30, 2016, were included. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from the medical record. Logistic regression was used to compare ADEs requiring a change in or early discontinuation of therapy, hospital readmission, and emergency room visits between groups. Time from OPAT enrollment to ADE was compared using the log-rank test.
In total, 417 patients were included: 312 (74·8%) received vancomycin and 105 (25·2%) received daptomycin. After adjusting for age, Charlson comorbidity index, location of OPAT treatment, receipt of combination therapy with either β-lactam or fluoroquinolone, renal function, and availability of safety labs, patients receiving vancomycin had significantly higher incidence of ADEs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3·71; 95% CI, 1·64–8·40). ADEs occurred later in the treatment course for patients treated with daptomycin (P<·01). Rates of readmission and emergency room visits were similar.
In the OPAT setting, vancomycin use was associated with higher incidence of ADEs than daptomycin use. This finding is an important policy consideration for programs aiming to optimize outcomes and minimize cost. Careful selection of gram-positive agents for prolonged treatment is necessary to limit toxicity.
Improving compliance with hand hygiene is a cornerstone of infection prevention. However, data regarding practical methods for monitoring compliance are limited. We found that product use metrics have a moderate correlation with direct observation in ward settings and limited correlation in intensive care units.
Over the past several years, we have seen many attacks on publicly funded and mandated archaeology in the United States. These attacks occur at the state level, where governors and state legislatures try to defund or outright eliminate state archaeological programs and institutions. We have also seen several attacks at the federal level. Some members of Congress showcase archaeology as a waste of public tax dollars, and others propose legislation to move federally funded or permitted projects forward without consideration of impacts on archaeological resources. These attacks continue to occur, and we expect them to increase in the future. In the past, a vigilant network of historic preservation and archaeological organizations was able to thwart such attacks. The public, however, largely remains an untapped ally. As a discipline, we have not built a strong public support network. We have not demonstrated the value of archaeology to the public, beyond a scattering of educational and informational programs. In this article, we—a group of archaeologists whose work has focused on public engagement—provide a number of specific recommendations on how to build a strong public constituency for the preservation of our nation's archaeological heritage.
The application of digital monitoring biomarkers in health, wellness and disease management is reviewed. Harnessing the near limitless capacity of these approaches in the managed healthcare continuum will benefit from a systems-based architecture which presents data quality, quantity, and ease of capture within a decision-making dashboard.
A framework was developed which stratifies key components and advances the concept of contextualized biomarkers. The framework codifies how direct, indirect, composite, and contextualized composite data can drive innovation for the application of digital biomarkers in healthcare.
The de novo framework implies consideration of physiological, behavioral, and environmental factors in the context of biomarker capture and analysis. Application in disease and wellness is highlighted, and incorporation in clinical feedback loops and closed-loop systems is illustrated.
The study of contextualized biomarkers has the potential to offer rich and insightful data for clinical decision making. Moreover, advancement of the field will benefit from innovation at the intersection of medicine, engineering, and science. Technological developments in this dynamic field will thus fuel its logical evolution guided by inputs from patients, physicians, healthcare providers, end-payors, actuarists, medical device manufacturers, and drug companies.
Objectives: To test the hypothesis that brain arterial diameters are associated with cognitive performance, particularly in arteries supplying domain-specific territories. Methods: Stroke-free participants in the Northern Manhattan Study were invited to have a brain MRI from 2003–2008. The luminal diameters of 13 intracranial arterial segments were obtained using time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA), and then averaged and normalized into a global score and region-specific arterial diameters. Z-Scores for executive function, semantic memory, episodic memory and processing speed were obtained at MRI and during follow-up. Adjusted generalized additive models were used to assess for associations. Results: Among the 1034 participants with neurocognitive testing and brain MRI, there were non-linear relationships between left anterior (ACA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) diameter and semantic memory Z-scores (χ2=10.00; DF=3; p=.019), and left posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and posterior communicating artery (Pcomm) mean diameter and episodic memory Z-scores (χ2=9.88; DF=3; p=.020). Among the 745 participants who returned for 2nd neuropsychological testing, on average 5.0±0.4 years after their MRI, semantic memory change was associated non-linearly with the left PCA/Pcomm mean diameter (χ2=13.09; DF=3; p=.004) and with the right MCA/ACA mean diameter (χ2=8.43; DF=3; p=.03). In both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, participants with the larger brain arterial diameters had more consistently lower Z-scores and greater decline than the rest of the participants. Conclusions: Brain arterial diameters may have downstream effects in brain function presenting as poorer cognition. Identifying the mechanisms and the directionality of such interactions may increase the understanding of the vascular contribution to cognitive impairment and dementia. (JINS, 2018, 24, 335–346)
New simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the archetypal mode-switching pulsar PSR B0943+10 have been carried out with XMM-Newton and the LOFAR, LWA and Arecibo radio telescopes in November 2014. They allowed us to better constrain the X-ray spectral and variability properties of this pulsar and to detect, for the first time, the X-ray pulsations also during the X-ray-fainter mode. The combined timing and spectral analysis indicates that unpulsed non-thermal emission, likely of magnetospheric origin, and pulsed thermal emission from a small polar cap are present during both radio modes and vary in a correlated way.
Invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) infections cause severe disease and death, especially in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). In order to inform iGAS prevention, we compared the risk of iGAS in LTCF residents and community residents. We identified LTCF residents among cases of iGAS from national surveillance (2009–2010) using postcode matching, and cases of hospital-acquired infections via hospital admission records. We used Poisson regression to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and logistic regression to explore factors associated with case fatality rate (CFR). A total of 2741 laboratory-confirmed iGAS cases were matched to a hospital admission: 156 (6%) were defined as hospital-acquired. Out of the total cases, 96 (3·5%) were LTCF residents. Compared with community residents, LTCF residents over 75 years of age had a higher risk of iGAS infection (IRR = 1·7; 95% CI 1·3–2·1) and CFR (OR = 2·3; 95% CI 1·3–3·8). Amongst community-acquired cases, the risk of iGAS in LTCF residents between 75 and 84 years of age doubled (IRR = 2·7; 95% CI 1·8–3·9) compared with their community counterparts. The CFR among community-acquired cases was higher in LTCF residents than community residents (21% vs. 11%). Age remained associated with death in our final model. Our study showed that, even controlling for age, LTCF residents have a higher risk of acquiring and dying from iGAS. Whilst existing co-morbidities may explain this, it is reasonable to assume that the institutional setting may facilitate transmission. Therefore, cases in LTCF require prompt investigation together with a better understanding of factors contributing to the acquisition of infection.
The Southern Hemisphere VLBI Experiment (or SHEVE) was a joint US-Australian-South African venture with both astronomy and geodesy goals. The principle astronomy goal was to make models or maps of the following sources: at 2.3 GHz (with six antennas and 9 usable baselines) – Centaurus A (the nearest active galaxy), Circinus X-1 (a flaring binary), the VELA pulsar, and 26 other active galactic nuclei and quasars; at 8.4 GHz (only one baseline) – Centaurus A and the galactic center.
We are investigating complete samples of southern hemisphere flat spectrum extra-galactic radio sources drawn from the Parkes 2.7 GHz Survey (see Bolton et al. 1979 and references therein). These samples are being used for a variety of investigations, including a determination of the space distribution and luminosity function of radio QSOs, their radio size distribution, as well as the structures of the individual sources. Accurate positions are being determined, as well, in order to establish an extra-galactic position reference frame in the southern hemisphere.
Six radio telescopes were operated as the first southern hemisphere VLBI array in April and May 1982. Observations were made at 2.3 and 8.4 Ghz. This array produced VLBI images of 28 southern hemisphere radio sources, high accuracy VLBI geodesy between southern hemisphere sites, and subarcsecond radio astrometry of celestial sources south of declination −45 degrees. This paper discusses only the astrophysical aspects of the experiment.
VLBI observations of the nucleus of Centaurus A were made in April, 1982 at two frequencies with an array of five Australian radio antennas as part of the Southern Hemisphere VLBI Experiment (SHEVE). Observations were undertaken at 2.29 GHz with all five antennas, while only two were operational at 8.42 GHz. The 2.29 GHz data yielded significant information on the structure of the nuclear jet. At 8.42 GHz a compact unresolved core was detected as well.