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Carbonate glasses can be formed routinely in the system K2CO3–MgCO3. The enthalpy of formation for one such 0.55K2CO3–0.45MgCO3 glass was determined at 298 K to be 115.00 ± 1.21 kJ/mol by drop solution calorimetry in molten sodium molybdate (3Na2O·MoO3) at 975 K. The corresponding heat of formation from oxides at 298 K was −261.12 ± 3.02 kJ/mol. This ternary glass is shown to be slightly metastable with respect to binary crystalline components (K2CO3 and MgCO3) and may be further stabilized by entropy terms arising from cation disorder and carbonate group distortions. This high degree of disorder is confirmed by 13C MAS NMR measurement of the average chemical shift tensor values, which show asymmetry of the carbonate anion to be significantly larger than previously reported values. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the structure of this carbonate glass reflects the strong interaction between the oxygen atoms in distorted carbonate anions and potassium cations.
To determine if US household food purchases with lower levels of red meat spending generate lower life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), greater nutritional quality and improved alignment with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Affordability of purchasing patterns by red meat spending levels was also assessed.
Household food purchase and acquisition data were linked to an environmentally extended input–output life-cycle assessment model to calculate food GHGE. Households (n 4706) were assigned to quintiles by the share of weekly food spending on red meat. Average weekly kilojoule-adjusted GHGE, total food spending, nutrients purchased and 2010 Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010) were evaluated using ANOVA and linear regression.
Households participating in the 2012–2013 National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey.
There was substantial variation in the share of the household food budget spent on red meat and total spending on red meat. The association between red meat spending share and total food spending was mixed. Lower red meat spending share was mostly advantageous from a nutritional perspective. Average GHGE were significantly lower and HEI-2010 scores were significantly higher for households spending the least on red meat as a share of total food spending.
Only very low levels of red meat spending as a share of total food spending had advantages for food affordability, lower GHGE, nutrients purchased and diet quality. Further studies assessing changes in GHGE and other environmental burdens, using more sophisticated analytical techniques and accounting for substitution towards non-red meat animal proteins, are needed.
Humanitarian aid in settings of conflict has always been fraught with challenges. In the absence of political engagement, however, manipulation by state authorities, however, have the potential to pervert aid intervention to inflict harm. South Sudan exemplifies how states may abuse the humanitarian response to retreat from public responsibility, divert funds to further violence and conflict and dictate the distribution of aid. Recent trends toward nationalist policies in the West that favor disengagement and limited military strikes have the very effect of allowing this abuse to transform humanitarian aid into a tool for harm. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:567–568)
Major depression and anxiety disorders are known to negatively influence cognitive performance. Moreover, there is evidence for greater cognitive decline in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder. Except for clinical studies, complex executive planning functions and subclinical levels of anxiety have not been examined in a population-based sample with a broad age range.
Planning performance was assessed using the Tower of London task in a population-based sample of 4240 participants aged 40–80 years from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) and related to self-reported anxiety and depression by means of multiple linear regression analysis.
Higher anxiety ratings were associated with lower planning performance (β = −0.20; p < 0.0001) independent of age (β = 0.03; p = 0.47). When directly comparing the predictive value of depression and anxiety on cognition, only anxiety attained significance (β = −0.19; p = 0.0047), whereas depression did not (β = −0.01; p = 0.71).
Subclinical levels of anxiety but not of depression showed negative associations with cognitive functioning independent of age. Our results demonstrate that associations observed in clinical groups might differ from those in population-based samples, also with regard to the trajectory across the life span. Further studies are needed to uncover causal interrelations of anxiety and cognition, which have been proposed in the literature, in order to develop interventions aimed at reducing this negative affective state and to improve executive functioning.
Orthopedic devices improve the quality of life of millions of people, and show up on radiographs and cross-sectional imaging studies daily. This text will familiarise radiologists with the indications, applications, potential complications, and radiologic evaluation of many medical devices. The book offers a complete discussion of fracture fixation, joint arthroplasty, and orthopedic apparatus of the neck and spine, including the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine. It also provides detailed overviews of devices used for common dental disease, covers the general principles applicable to complications of orthopedic devices, foreign body ingestions, insertions and injuries, and details quality assurance issues concerning the manufacture and distribution of devices. Featuring a large gallery of apparatus for reference, an extensive glossary of terms and a list of manufacturers, Radiologic Guide to Orthopedic Devices is an essential resource for radiologists, orthopedists and emergency medicine physicians. Regular updates to the topics covered will be available on http://www.medapparatus.com.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious illness leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. The treatment of AN very often is protracted; repeated hospitalizations and lost productivity generate substantial economic costs in the health care system. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the differential cost-effectiveness of out-patient focal psychodynamic psychotherapy (FPT), enhanced cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT-E), and optimized treatment as usual (TAU-O) in the treatment of adult women with AN.
The analysis was conducted alongside the randomized controlled Anorexia Nervosa Treatment of OutPatients (ANTOP) study. Cost-effectiveness was determined using direct costs per recovery at 22 months post-randomization (n = 156). Unadjusted incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. To derive cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs) adjusted net-benefit regressions were applied assuming different values for the maximum willingness to pay (WTP) per additional recovery. Cost–utility and assumptions underlying the base case were investigated in exploratory analyses.
Costs of in-patient treatment and the percentage of patients who required in-patient treatment were considerably lower in both intervention groups. The unadjusted ICERs indicated FPT and CBT-E to be dominant compared with TAU-O. Moreover, FPT was dominant compared with CBT-E. CEACs showed that the probability for cost-effectiveness of FTP compared with TAU-O and CBT-E was ⩾95% if the WTP per recovery was ⩾€9825 and ⩾€24 550, respectively. Comparing CBT-E with TAU-O, the probability of being cost-effective remained <90% for all WTPs. The exploratory analyses showed similar but less pronounced trends.
Depending on the WTP, FPT proved cost-effective in the treatment of adult AN.
Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the milligram level is routinely performed, but it is difficult to go substantially below 100 μg of carbon. We discuss various approaches for sample preparation, machine operation and data evaluation, to meet the special requirements of 14C AMS measurements at the microgram-carbon level. Furthermore, we present first results obtained at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA) from 14C measurements of a snow sample from Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, prepared at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
For more than 120 years since the name Caprovis savinii was founded on the basis of a bovid horn core from the ‘Forest Bed’ at Overstrand (Norfolk, UK), only one other find has been assigned to this species. Recently, two horn cores and one horn core fragment of the species have been discovered at two sand and gravel sorting centres in the Netherlands. The bone-bearing sediments are exposed on the North Sea floor, just off the coast of Great Yarmouth (Norfolk, UK). By comparing fossil and extant taxa, a classification within the bovid tribe Antilopini is proposed. Based on the accompanying fauna from the specific dredging area and the litho- and chronostratigraphy at Overstrand, C. savinii is placed within the Early Pleistocene.