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The emergence of callous unemotional (CU) traits, and associated externalizing behaviors, is believed to reflect underlying dysfunction in the amygdala. Studies of adults with CU traits or psychopathy have linked characteristic patterns of amygdala dysfunction to reduced amygdala volume, but studies in youths have not thus far found evidence of similar amygdala volume reductions. The current study examined the association between CU traits and amygdala volume by modeling CU traits and externalizing behavior as independent continuous variables, and explored the relative contributions of callous, uncaring, and unemotional traits.
CU traits and externalizing behavior problems were assessed in 148 youths using the Inventory of Callous Unemotional Traits (ICU) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). For a subset of participants (n = 93), high-resolution T1-weighted images were collected and volume estimates for the amygdala were extracted.
Analyses revealed that CU traits were associated with increased externalizing behaviors and decreased bilateral amygdala volume. These results were driven by the callous and uncaring sub-factors of CU traits, with unemotional traits unrelated to either externalizing behaviors or amygdala volume. Results persisted after accounting for covariation between CU traits and externalizing behaviors. Bootstrap mediation analyses indicated that CU traits mediated the relationship between reduced amygdala volume and externalizing severity.
These findings provide evidence that callous-uncaring traits account for reduced amygdala volume among youths with conduct problems. These findings provide a framework for further investigation of abnormal amygdala development as a key causal pathway for the development of callous-uncaring traits and conduct problems.
Universal screening for postpartum depression is recommended in many countries. Knowledge of whether the disclosure of depressive symptoms in the postpartum period differs across cultures could improve detection and provide new insights into the pathogenesis. Moreover, it is a necessary step to evaluate the universal use of screening instruments in research and clinical practice. In the current study we sought to assess whether the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the most widely used screening tool for postpartum depression, measures the same underlying construct across cultural groups in a large international dataset.
Ordinal regression and measurement invariance were used to explore the association between culture, operationalized as education, ethnicity/race and continent, and endorsement of depressive symptoms using the EPDS on 8209 new mothers from Europe and the USA.
Education, but not ethnicity/race, influenced the reporting of postpartum depression [difference between robust comparative fit indexes (∆*CFI) < 0.01]. The structure of EPDS responses significantly differed between Europe and the USA (∆*CFI > 0.01), but not between European countries (∆*CFI < 0.01).
Investigators and clinicians should be aware of the potential differences in expression of phenotype of postpartum depression that women of different educational backgrounds may manifest. The increasing cultural heterogeneity of societies together with the tendency towards globalization requires a culturally sensitive approach to patients, research and policies, that takes into account, beyond rhetoric, the context of a person's experiences and the context in which the research is conducted.
Several outbreaks of hepatitis A in men who have sex with men (MSM) were reported in the 1980s and 1990s in Australia and other countries. An effective hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine has been available in Australia since 1994 and is recommended for high-risk groups including MSM. No outbreaks of hepatitis A in Australian MSM have been reported since 1996. In this study, we aimed to estimate HAV transmissibility in MSM populations in order to inform targets for vaccine coverage in such populations. We used mathematical models of HAV transmission in a MSM population to estimate the basic reproduction number (R0) and the probability of an HAV epidemic occurring as a function of the immune proportion. We estimated a plausible range for R0 of 1·71–3·67 for HAV in MSM and that sustained epidemics cannot occur once the proportion immune to HAV is greater than ~70%. To our knowledge this is the first estimate of R0 and the critical population immunity threshold for HAV transmission in MSM. As HAV is no longer endemic in Australia or in most other developed countries, vaccination is the only means of maintaining population immunity >70%. Our findings provide impetus to promote HAV vaccination in high-risk groups such as MSM.
Radio interferometric observations of extragalactic radio sources have been made with antennas at the Haystack Observatory in Massachusetts and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in California during fourteen separate experiments distributed between September 1976 and May 1978. The components of the baseline vector and the coordinates of the sources were estimated from the data from each experiment separately. The root-weighted-mean-square scatter about the weighted mean (“repeatability”) of the estimates of the length of the 3900 km baseline was approximately 7 cm, and of the source coordinates, approximately or less, except for the declinations of low-declination sources. With the source coordinates all held fixed at the best available, a posteriori, values, and the analyses repeated for each experiment, the repeatability obtained for the estimate of baseline length was 4 cm. From analyses of the data from several experiments simultaneously, estimates were obtained of changes in the x component of pole position and in the Earth's rotation (UT1). Comparison with the corresponding results obtained by the Bureau International de l'Heure (BIH) discloses systematic differences. In particular, the trends in the radio interferometric determinations of the changes in pole position agree more closely with those from the International Polar Motion Service (IPMS) and from the Doppler observations of satellites than with those from the BIH.
A new beam-combination and detection system has been installed in the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer working at the red end of the visual spectrum (λλ 500–950 nm) to complement the existing blue-sensitive system (λλ 430–520 nm) and to provide an increase in sensitivity. Dichroic beam-splitters have been introduced to allow simultaneous observations with both spectral systems, albeit with some restriction on the spectral range of the longer wavelength system (λλ 550–760 nm). The blue system has been upgraded to allow remote selection of wavelength and spectral bandpass, and to enable simultaneous operation with the red system with the latter providing fringe-envelope tracking. The new system and upgrades are described and examples of commissioning tests presented. As an illustration of the improvement in performance the measurement of the angular diameter of the southern F supergiant δ CMa is described and compared with previous determinations.
Bulk ion implantations of AlxGa1-xAs (x = 0.6 or 0.85) were performed at 77 K with 1.5 MeV Kr+, 1 MeV Ar+ or 1.5 MeV++ ions, and the resulting damage state examined by using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry-channeling at 77 K and 293 K and transmission electron microscopy at 300 K. Amorphization of a portion of the A1xGa1-x As layer occurred at 77 K only for the 1.5 MeV Kr+ implantation, although the dose required to cause amorphization was higher for the higher Al content alloy. TRIM calculations[10–11] show that with this implantation the density of high energy density cascades varies as a function of depth through the layer and that these are superimposed on a high, uniform density of defects. Comparison of the ion channeling spectra at 77 K and 293 K shows that recovery occurs over a portion of the layer in the Al0.6Ga0.4As but is not detected in the A10.85Ga0.15As layer. In both alloys, the room temperature microstructure consists of an amorphous and a crystalline region. The amorphous region extends from the deeper AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs interface into the layer, and is separated from the crystalline material by a crystalline region containing planar defects. The difference between the alloys is in the extent of this latter region, which decreases in width with increasing Al content. These results will be used to examine current models for amorphization in the AlxGa1-xAs system.
An analysis was undertaken to measure age-specific vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 2010/11 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) and monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine (PIV) administered in 2009/2010. The test-negative case-control study design was employed based on patients consulting primary care. Overall TIV effectiveness, adjusted for age and month, against confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm 2009 infection was 56% (95% CI 42–66); age-specific adjusted VE was 87% (95% CI 45–97) in <5-year-olds and 84% (95% CI 27–97) in 5- to 14-year-olds. Adjusted VE for PIV was only 28% (95% CI −6 to 51) overall and 72% (95% CI 15–91) in <5-year-olds. For confirmed influenza B infection, TIV effectiveness was 57% (95% CI 42–68) and in 5- to 14-year-olds 75% (95% CI 32–91). TIV provided moderate protection against the main circulating strains in 2010/2011, with higher protection in children. PIV administered during the previous season provided residual protection after 1 year, particularly in the <5 years age group.
Determinations of dissolved oxygen and nutrients in the water overlying the sediments, of sedimentation rates, and of redox values, acidity, dissolved sulphide, carbon, nitrogen and cellulose values at different levels in the sediments themselves have been carried out in various parts of Sullom Voe. The effects of oxygen depletion following intermittent stagnation of the bottom water in the inner basin on carbon cycling in the sediments are discussed and contrasted with the chemistry of oxygen-rich sediments elsewhere in the voe.
In order to utilise the full potential of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers, it is necessary to be able to synthesize well aligned nanotubes/nanofibres at desired locations on a substrate. This paper examines the preferential growth of aligned carbon nanofibres by PECVD using lithographically patterned catalysts. In the PECVD deposition process, amorphous carbon is deposited together with the nanotubes due to the plasma decomposition of the carbon feed gas, in this case, acetylene. The challenge is to uniformly nucleate nanotubes and reduce the unwanted amorphous carbon on both the patterned and unpatterned areas. An etching gas (ammonia) is thus also incorporated into the PECVD process and by appropriately balancing the acetylene to ammonia ratio, conditions are obtained where no unwanted amorphous carbon is deposited. In this paper, we demonstrate high yield, uniform, ‘clean’ and preferential growth of vertically aligned nanotubes using PECVD.
The field emission properties of nanostructured carbon films deposited by cathodic vacuum arc in a He atmosphere have been studied by measuring the emission currents and the emission site density. The films have an onset field of ∼3 V/μm. The emission site density is viewed on a phosphor anode and it increases rapidly with applied field. It is assumed that the emission occurs from surface regions with a range of field enhancement factors but with a constant work function. The field enhancement factor is found to have an exponential distribution.
Newly developed empirical hydrocarbon potentials and self-consistent first-principles local density functional methods are used to investigate possible isomers and the electronic structure of C60H36. Within the high symmetry Th structure conjectured by the groups at Rice University there are two inequivalent sets of hydrogen atoms containing twelve and twenty-four atoms respectively. Binding each set either inside or outside of the C60 cage leads to four isomers of C60H36 with inequivalent strain energies. Although we find that placing twelve hydrogens inside the cage can lead to a metastable structure, our calculated total energies suggest that the isomer with all the hydrogens on the outside of the cage is the energetically most stable.
Transmission electron microscopy experiments have been performed to investigate the lattice damage created by heavy-ion bombardments in GaAs. These experiments have been performed in situ by using the HVEN - Ion Accelerator Facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The ion bcorbardments (50 keV Ar+ and Kr+) and the microscopy have been carried out at temperatures rangrin from 30 to 300 K. Ion fluences ranged from 2 × 1011 to 5 × 1013 ions cm−2.
Direct-inpact amorphization is observed to occur in both n-type and semi-insulating GaAs irradiated to low ion doses at 30 K and room temperature. The probability of forming a visible defect is higher for low temperature irradiations than for room temperature irradiations. The amorphous zones formed at low temperature are stable to temperatures above 250 K. Post implantation annealing is seen to occur at room temperature for all samples irradiated to low doses until eventually all visible damage disappears.
Recent reports suggest that graphitic tubules with diameters on the order of fullerene diameters have been synthesized. Such small-diameter tubules should have electronic properties related to those of two-dimensional graphite. We demonstrate by comparison with results from a first-principles, self-consistent, all-electron Gaussian-orbital based local-density functional approach that an all-valence tight-binding model can be expected to give a reasonable description of the electronic states of these tubules. In analyzing both high-symmetry tubules and lower-symmetry chiral tubules, we see that a relatively high carrier density could be expected for many of these structures.
We have calculated the electronic structure of icosahedrai C60H60 and tetrahedral C60H60 via an all-electron Gaussian-orbital based local-density functional approach. The one-electron wavefunctions and eigenvalues have been used in a first-order time-dependent perturbation theoretic calculation of the spherically averaged X-ray and ultraviolet pho-toemission cross-sections for these molecules.
The influence of in-situ photoexcitation during low temperature implantation on selfinterstitial agglomeration following annaealing has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A reduction in the level of as-implanted damage determined by RBS and TEM occurs athermally during 150 keV self-ion implantation. The damage reduction following a 300°C anneal suggests that it is mostly divacancy related. Subsequent thermal annealing at 800°C resulted in the formation of 13111 rod like defects or dislocation loops for samples with and without in-situ photoexcitation, respectively. Estimation of the number of self-interstitials bound by these defects in the sample without in-situ photoexcitation corresponds to the implanted dose; whereas for the insitu photoexcitation sample a suppression of ≈2 orders in magnitude is found. The kinetics of the athermal annealing process are discussed within the framework of either a recombination enhanced defect reaction mechanism, or a charge state enhanced defect migration and Coulomb interaction.