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The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) measures three aspects of catastrophic cognitions about pain—rumination, magnification, and helplessness. To facilitate assessment and clinical application, we aimed to (a) develop a short version on the basis of its factorial structure and the items’ correlations with key pain-related outcomes, and (b) identify the threshold on the short form indicative of risk for depression.
Social centers for older people.
664 Chinese older adults with chronic pain.
Besides the PCS, pain intensity, pain disability, and depressive symptoms were assessed.
For the full scale, confirmatory factor analysis showed that the hypothesized 3-factor model fit the data moderately well. On the basis of the factor loadings, two items were selected from each of the three dimensions. An additional item significantly associated with pain disability and depressive symptoms, over and above these six items, was identified through regression analyses. A short-PCS composed of seven items was formed, which correlated at r=0.97 with the full scale. Subsequently, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted against clinically significant depressive symptoms, defined as a score of ≥12 on a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. This analysis showed a score of ≥7 to be the optimal cutoff for the short-PCS, with sensitivity = 81.6% and specificity = 78.3% when predicting clinically significant depressive symptoms.
The short-PCS may be used in lieu of the full scale and as a brief screen to identify individuals with serious catastrophizing.
Although relapse in psychosis is common, a small proportion of patients will not relapse in the long term. We examined the proportion and predictors of patients who never relapsed in the 10 years following complete resolution of positive symptoms from their first psychotic episode.
Patients who previously enrolled in a 12-month randomized controlled trial on medication discontinuation and relapse following first-episode psychosis (FEP) were followed up after 10 years. Relapse of positive symptoms was operationalized as a change from a Clinical Global Impression scale positive score of <3 for at least 3 consecutive months to a score of ⩾3 (mild or more severe). Baseline predictors included basic demographics, premorbid functioning, symptoms, functioning, and neurocognitive functioning.
Out of 178 first-episode patients, 37 (21%) never relapsed during the 10-year period. Univariate predictors (p ⩽ 0.1) of patients who never relapsed included a duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) ⩽30 days, diagnosed with non-schizophrenia spectrum disorders, having less severe negative symptoms, and performing better in logical memory immediate recall and verbal fluency tests. A multivariate logistic regression analysis further suggested that the absence of any relapsing episodes was significantly related to better short-term verbal memory, shorter DUP, and non-schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
Treatment delay and neurocognitive function are potentially modifiable predictors of good long-term prognosis in FEP. These predictors are informative as they can be incorporated into an optimum risk prediction model in the future, which would help with clinical decision making regarding maintenance treatment in FEP.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
Selective Chemical Vapor Deposition of Crystalline Ge-Sb-Te alloys initiating at the bottom metal contact of vias of various sizes has been accomplished. The method is based on selecting Sb and Te precursors which do not decompose on dielectric surfaces in the utilized temperature range.
A high temperature combustion method was used to analyze the 14C and 3H activities in graphite and the dose assessment was carried out to determine the clearance in the conservative way. By this method, the 3H and 14C were simultaneously trapped in the nitric acid and carbosorb, respectively. Accordingly, the sample preparation time for the measurement was reduced to the half. The combustion temperature was more than 800 degrees in centigrade for obtaining total tritium and 14C in the sample. The combustion ratio was about 99% on the graphite sample with the weight of 0.1 g. Minimum detectable activity was 0.05 Bq/g for the 14C and 0.15 Bq/g for the 3H at the same background counting time. The recoveries from the combustion furnace were around 100% and 90% in 14C and 3H, respectively. The radioactivity were 2,530 ~ 3,160 Bq/g in 14C and 1,700 ~2,040 Bq/g in 3H at this experiment. The experimental uncertainty was less than 6% in both radionuclides where the furnace recovery was dominant factor. An individual effective dose from beta and gamma radionuclides was estimated by consideration of the scenario of inhalation, ingestion and external exposure. 60Co, the radioactivity of which was measured by using HPGe detector, had a predominant effect in estimating the effective dose. The estimation showed that the graphite wastes from the dismantled research reactor should be disposed of as a low level radioactive waste rather than clearance.
We are developing the technique of spin-polarized photoelectron spectroscopy as a probe of electron correlation with the ultimate goal of resolving the Pu electronic structure controversy. Over the last several years, we have demonstrated the utility of spin polarized photoelectron spectroscopy for determining the fine details of the electronic structure in complex systems such as those shown below.
We investigated the performance of 65nm pFETs whereby the source and drain extensions (SDE) were implanted with Carborane, (C2B10H12) a novel form of molecular species. The high atomic mass of this molecule (146 a.m.u.) and the number of boron atoms transported per ion enables the productivity at low energy required for manufacturing of ultra shallow junctions for advanced scaling. In this investigation, Carborane was implanted at 13 keV to produce a Boron profile near equivalent to that produced by the reference BF2 implant. Results of electrical measurements did not exhibit any compromise in the I-V characteristics in terms of Id-Vg and Id-Vd and Ion-Ioff. External resistance and Vt roll-off shifted slightly with respect to the reference devices. This is attributed to a deeper junction with Carborane due to slight offset in the profile matching. It will be shown that with fully matched profiles, a perfect match of the device characteristics can be achieved.
Plutonium, because of its self-irradiation by alpha decay, ages by means of lattice damage and helium in-growth. These integrated aging effects will result in microstructural and physical property changes. Because these effects would normally require decades to measure, studies are underway to asses the effects of extended aging on the physical properties of plutonium alloys by incorporating roughly 7.5 wt% of highly specific activity isotope 238Pu into the weapons-grade plutonium to accelerate the aging process. This paper presents updated results of self-irradiation effects on enriched and reference alloys measured from the immersion density, dilatometry, and mechanical tests. After nearly 90 equivalent years of aging, both the immersion density and dilatometry show that the enriched alloys at 35°C have decreased in density by ∼0.19 % and now exhibit a near linear density decrease, without void swelling. Both tensile and compression measurements show that the aging process continues to increase the strength of plutonium alloys.
Results of radiation damage in Pu and Pu1-xAmx alloys studied with magnetic susceptibility, χ(T), and resistivity are presented. Damage accumulated at low temperatures increases χ(T) for all measured alloys, with the trend generally enhanced as the lattice expands. There is a trend towards saturation observable in the damage induced magnetic susceptibility data. that is not evident in similar damage induced resistivity data taken on the same specimen. A comparison of isochronal annealing curves measured by both resistivity and magnetic susceptibility on a 4.3at% Ga stabilized δ-Pu specimen show that Stage I annealing, where interstitials begin to move, is largely transparent to the magnetic measurement. This indicates that interstitials have little impact on the damage induced increase in the magnetic susceptibility. The isochronal annealing curves of the Pu1-xAmx alloys do not show distinct annealing stages as expected for alloys. However, samples near 20% Am concentration show an unexpected increase in magnetization beginning when specimens are annealed to 35K. This behavior is also reflected in a time dependent increase in the magnetic susceptibility of damaged specimens indicative of first order kinetics. These results suggest there may be a metastable phase induced by radiation damage and annealing in Pu1-xAmx alloys.
The purpose of this study was to determine the treatment outcome of neoadjuvant docetaxel and cisplatin chemotherapy followed by local radiotherapy for chemotherapy-naïve patients with locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Thirty-seven patients with stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck who received docetaxel and cisplatin regimen for a maximum of three cycles followed by radiation therapy were enrolled in this study. The overall response rate to the regimen was 91.9 per cent (34 of 37) (the complete remission rate was 48.6 per cent). The median time to treatment failure was 38 months (95 per cent confidence interval, 15–61 months). The four year estimated overall survival rates were 85.1 per cent. The most frequent moderate-to-severe toxicity was grade 3–4 neutropenia. The most common acute non-haematologic toxicities included anorexia, nausea and asthenia. Neoadjuvant docetaxel and cisplatin chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy is a feasible treatment strategy for patients with locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) have been performed upon highly radioactive samples, particularly Plutonium, at the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, CA, USA. First results from alpha and delta Plutonium are reported as well as a detailed analysis of sample quality.