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To describe the average consumption of carbohydrate-providing food groups among study centres of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
Of the 27 redefined EPIC study centres, 19 contributed subjects of both genders and eight centres female participants only (men, n=13 031; women, n=22924, after exclusion of subjects under 35 and over 74 years of age from the original 36 900 total). Dietary data were obtained using the 24-hour recall methodology using the EPIC-SOFT software. The major sources of dietary carbohydrate were identified, and 16 food groups were examined.
The 10 food groups contributing most carbohydrate were bread; fruit; milk and milk products; sweet buns, cakes and pies; potato; sugar and jam; pasta and rice; vegetables and legumes; crispbread; and fruit and vegetable juices. Consumption of fruits as well as vegetables and legumes was higher in southern compared with northern centres, while soft drinks consumption was higher in the north. Italian centres had high pasta and rice consumption, but breakfast cereal, potato, and sweet buns, cakes and pies were higher in northern centres. In Sweden, lower bread consumption was balanced with a higher consumption of crispbread, and with sweet buns, cakes and pies. Overall, men consumed higher amounts of vegetables and legumes, bread, soft drinks, potatoes, pasta and rice, breakfast cereal and sugar and jam than women, but fruit consumption appeared more frequent in women.
The study supports the established idea that carbohydrate-rich foods chosen in northern Europe are different from those in the Mediterranean region. When comparing and interpreting diet–disease relationships across populations, researchers need to consider all types of foods.
A modified electron whistler dispersion law is derived in the cold-plasma
approximation for analytical treatment and simplified numerical calculations of
wave propagation in a wide range of ratios ωc/ωp of electron gyro- to plasma
frequencies if the wave frequency is much less than ωp. The net contribution of
ions to the wave dispersion law is expressed through the value of the lower-hybrid
resonance frequency ωlhr only. This approximate dispersion law is valid in a wide
frequency domain, that is, from the range of ωlhr until the domain where the contribution of ions can be neglected. A comparison of geometrical-optics ray trajectories
calculated by the use of modified and total cold-plasma electron whistler dispersion laws is presented for the case of the Earth's plasma environment. Computer
simulations of dynamical spectra of whistler waves excited by lightning discharges
and registered in remote regions of the Earth's plasmasphere reveal good numerical
stability of the developed ray-tracing code.
Undoped and Si-doped GaN films were grown by low pressure MOCVD on (0001) sapphire substrates. The angular distribution of the X-ray diffraction corresponding to the (0002), (0004), (100), (200), and (114) reflections has been measured by means of double- and triple -crystal diffractometry with Mo Kα1 and Cu Kα1 radiation under conditions of symmetrical and asymmetrical Bragg- and Laue-geometry. In our experiments a non-coplanar geometry was also applied. On the basis of the performed studies, five independent components of the tensor of microdistortion were evaluated and the average grain-size in two directions was determined. The type, position, and density of dislocations were established as well. The role of dislocations in strain relaxation and their influence on the optical and electrical properties are discussed.
In this study, both single undoped GaN epilayers and GaN-based device structures was treated by electrochemical etching in the dilute water solution of KOH or NaOH. Our investigations showed that in the undoped GaN epilayers grown by MOCVD the electrical and optical properties were nonuniform in depth. In this case, high defective and high conductive sublayer adjacent to the substrate was revealed by the electrochemical etching. This high conductive region was proved to condition the results of Hall effect measurements. Electrolyte etching of i-n GaN-based device structures grown by HVPE gave rise to significant increasing of the electroluminescence intensity. Influence of electrochemical etching on luminescence properties of the device structure is discussed.
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