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Leg weakness (LW) issues are a great concern for pig breeding industry. And it also has a serious impact on animal welfare. To dissect the genetic architecture of limb-and-hoof firmness in commercial pigs, a genome-wide association study was conducted on bone mineral density (BMD) in three sow populations, including Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire. The BMD data were obtained by ultrasound technology from 812 pigs (including Duroc 115, Landrace 243 and Yorkshire 454). In addition, all pigs were genotyped using genome-by-sequencing and a total of 224 162 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were obtained. After quality control, 218 141 SNPs were used for subsequent genome-wide association analysis. Nine significant associations were identified on chromosomes 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12 and 18 that passed Bonferroni correction threshold of 0.05/(total SNP numbers). The most significant locus that associated with BMD (P value = 1.92e−14) was detected at approximately 41.7 Mb on SSC6 (SSC stands for Sus scrofa chromosome). CUL7, PTK7, SRF, VEGFA, RHEB, PRKAR1A and TPO that are located near the lead SNP of significant loci were highlighted as functionally plausible candidate genes for sow limb-and-hoof firmness. Moreover, we also applied a new method to measure the BMD data of pigs by ultrasound technology. The results provide an insight into the genetic architecture of LW and can also help to improve animal welfare in pigs.
To compare efficacy and medical costs of typital and atypical antipsychotics in treating schizophrenic patients.
250 in patients in general hospital and psychiatric hospital were randomly allocated to one of the two groups, one treated with typital antipsychotics as chlorpromazine, haloperidol and so on with a mean daily dose of 500∼800 mg in chlorpromazine equivalents, and the other with atypical agents in cluding clozapine (mean daily dose of 400∼800mg ), risperidone of 6 mg, or olanzapine of 20 mg.
The total costs of the treatment were (3157±253) Yuan RMB for patients treated with typical agents in general hospital, and (3673±294) Yuan RMB for patients treated with typical agents in psychiatric hospital respectively. the costs for medicine were (774±903) Yuan RMB, (1061±903) Yuan RMB respectively. the costs in atypical group were(1120±390) Yuan RMB and (1637±325) Yuan RMB, and (108±157) Yuan RMB and (240±317) Yuan RMB respectively. the duration of patients treated with typical agents in hospital is longer than that with atypical agents.
It indicates that atypical antipsychotics have similar efficacy to typical agents in treating schizophrenic patients with less costs.
To investigate the effect of Chinese herb Danshen-Dahuang on learning and memory ability in rats with Alzheimer disease (AD) induced by D-galactose and AlCl3 and its possible mechanisms.
The AD model was produced by injecting D-galactose and AlCl3 intraperitoneally for 90 days. Since the 20th day of D-galactose and AlCl3 intraperitoneal injection, the rats in Danshen-Dahuang group had been treated with Danshen-Dahuang extraction by intragastric administration for 70 days. Subsequently,learning and memory ability of the mice was evaluated by Morris water maze and hippocampal gene expression of APP, PS1 was tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
Rats intragastric administration with Danshen-Dahuang, mice had shorter latency (P< 0.05) and less error times (P< 0.05) in water maze test compared with those in AD model group. At the same time, Danshen-Dahuang down regulated the expression of APP, PS1 mRNA (P< 0.05) in hippocampus.
Danshen-Dahuang improves the learning and memory ability of AD rats, its mechanism may be related to the downregulated expression of APP, PS1 mRNA.
To study on mental health status of the freshman and graduates in five different universities.
The 1022 freshman and 956 college graduates from five different universities were tested with the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). They came from one was general university, two technological universities, one is medical university, one is agricultural university.
All of the freshman and college graduates’ mental health status is inferior to the contemporaries; there are about 8.5% freshman and 11.4% graduates who have psychological problems. the SCL-90 factor scores of liberal arts students are higher than those of the science in freshman and graduates. There is significant difference between two groups (P< 0.05~P< 0.01). among the five different universities, freshman is same, but in graduates of five different universities, medical graduates have a better mental health status than other college's students do.
It is necessary that positive educating mental health status to college students’ and trained always-cheerful character and stable mood so level of mental health status of college freshman and graduates will be improved.
To study on Personal Characteristics of the freshman and graduates in five different universities.
The 1022 freshman and 956 graduates from five different universities were tested with the Eysenck Personality Questiornaire (EPQ). They came from one was general university, two technological universities, one is medical university, one is agricultural university.
Distribution of freshman and graduates personal characteristics in various sexes and universities is different. There are 19% and 12% of freshman with some psychological problem were P type and N type respectively according to neuroticism scale of EPQ, 64% of that were unstable temperament; 31% of the freshman who were unstable temperament and 25% were mental health status was extroversion disposition. But in graduates are 42% and 34% ( P type and N type) respectively according to neuroticism scale of EPQ. Unstable temperament is 58% and mental health status was extroversion disposition is 39%.
The freshman and graduates psychological health of Shanxi Province of China is poor and should be paid more attention. the psychological state is related to different universities. the freshman and graduates are associated with personal characteristics, unstable professions, emotional trouble and passive attitude to the value and so on.
Yukon Territory (YT) is a remote region in northern Canada with ongoing spread of tuberculosis (TB). To explore the utility of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for TB surveillance and monitoring in a setting with detailed contact tracing and interview data, we used a mixed-methods approach. Our analysis included all culture-confirmed cases in YT (2005–2014) and incorporated data from 24-locus Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) genotyping, WGS and contact tracing. We compared field-based (contact investigation (CI) data + MIRU-VNTR) and genomic-based (WGS + MIRU-VNTR + basic case data) investigations to identify the most likely source of each person's TB and assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of programme personnel around genotyping and genomics using online, multiple-choice surveys (n = 4) and an in-person group interview (n = 5). Field- and genomics-based approaches agreed for 26 of 32 (81%) cases on likely location of TB acquisition. There was less agreement in the identification of specific source cases (13/22 or 59% of cases). Single-locus MIRU-VNTR variants and limited genetic diversity complicated the analysis. Qualitative data indicated that participants viewed genomic epidemiology as a useful tool to streamline investigations, particularly in differentiating latent TB reactivation from the recent transmission. Based on this, genomic data could be used to enhance CIs, focus resources, target interventions and aid in TB programme evaluation.
Nasal lavage with mupirocin has the potential to reduce sinonasal morbidity in endoscopic endonasal approaches for skull base surgery.
To evaluate the effects of nasal lavage with and without mupirocin after endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery.
A pilot randomised, controlled trial was conducted on 20 adult patients who had undergone endoscopic endonasal approaches for skull base lesions. These patients were randomly assigned to cohorts using nasal lavages with mupirocin or without mupirocin. Patients were assessed in the out-patient clinic, one week and one month after surgery, using the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test questionnaire and nasal endoscopy.
Patients in the mupirocin nasal lavage group had lower nasal endoscopy scores post-operatively, and a statistically significant larger difference in nasal endoscopy scores at one month compared to one week. The mupirocin nasal lavage group also showed better Sino-Nasal Outcome Test scores at one month compared to the group without mupirocin.
Nasal lavage with mupirocin seems to yield better outcomes regarding patients’ symptoms and endoscopic findings.
A viscous damping model is proposed based on a simplified equation of fluid motion in a moonpool or the narrow gap formed by two fixed boxes. The model takes into account the damping induced by both flow separation and wall friction through two damping coefficients, namely, the local and friction loss coefficients. The local loss coefficient is determined through specifically designed physical model tests in this work, and the friction loss coefficient is estimated through an empirical formula found in the literature. The viscous damping model is implemented in the dynamic free-surface boundary condition in the gap of a modified potential flow model. The modified potential flow model is then applied to simulate the wave-induced fluid responses in a narrow gap formed by two fixed boxes and in a moonpool for which experimental data are available. The modified potential flow model with the proposed viscous damping model works well in capturing both the resonant amplitude and frequency under a wide range of damping conditions.
Few studies have used genomic epidemiology to understand tuberculosis (TB) transmission in rural and remote settings – regions often unique in history, geography and demographics. To improve our understanding of TB transmission dynamics in Yukon Territory (YT), a circumpolar Canadian territory, we conducted a retrospective analysis in which we combined epidemiological data collected through routine contact investigations with clinical and laboratory results. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from all culture-confirmed TB cases in YT (2005–2014) were genotyped using 24-locus Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) and compared to each other and to those from the neighbouring province of British Columbia (BC). Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of genotypically clustered isolates revealed three sustained transmission networks within YT, two of which also involved BC isolates. While each network had distinct characteristics, all had at least one individual acting as the probable source of three or more culture-positive cases. Overall, WGS revealed that TB transmission dynamics in YT are distinct from patterns of spread in other, more remote Northern Canadian regions, and that the combination of WGS and epidemiological data can provide actionable information to local public health teams.
Although parasites and microbial pathogens are both detrimental to insects, little information is currently available on the mechanism involved in how parasitized hosts balance their immune responses to defend against microbial infections. We addressed this in the present study by comparing the immune response between unparasitized and parasitized pupae of the chrysomelid beetle, Octodonta nipae (Maulik), to Escherichia coli invasion. In an in vivo survival assay, a markedly reduced number of E. coli colony-forming units per microliter was detected in parasitized pupae at 12 and 24 h post-parasitism, together with decreased phagocytosis and enhanced bactericidal activity at 12 h post-parasitism. The effects that parasitism had on the mRNA expression level of selected antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of O. nipae pupae showed that nearly all transcripts of AMPs examined were highly upregulated during the early and late parasitism stages except defensin 2B, whose mRNA expression level was downregulated at 24 h post-parasitism. Further elucidation on the main maternal fluids responsible for alteration of the primary immune response against E. coli showed that ovarian fluid increased phagocytosis at 48 h post-injection. These results indicated that the enhanced degradation of E. coli in parasitized pupae resulted mainly from the elevated bactericidal activity without observing the increased transcripts of target AMPs. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the immune responses of a parasitized host to bacterial infections.
Plant nitrogen (N) links with many physiological progresses of crop growth and yield formation. Accurate simulation is key to predict crop growth and yield correctly. The aim of the current study was to improve the estimation of N uptake and translocation processes in the whole rice plant as well as within plant organs in the RiceGrow model by using plant and organ maximum, critical and minimum N dilution curves. The maximum and critical N (Nc) demand (obtained from the maximum and critical curves) of shoot and root and Nc demand of organs (leaf, stem and panicle) are calculated by N concentration and biomass. Nitrogen distribution among organs is computed differently pre- and post-anthesis. Pre-anthesis distribution is determined by maximum N demand with no priority among organs. In post-anthesis distribution, panicle demands are met first and then the remaining N is allocated to other organs without priority. The amount of plant N uptake depends on plant N demand and N supplied by the soil. Calibration and validation of the established model were performed on field experiments conducted in China and the Philippines with varied N rates and N split applications; results showed that this improved model can simulate the processes of N uptake and translocation well.
Ondansetron is increasingly administered to children suffering from concussion-associated nausea/vomiting. We examined the association between ondansetron administration and post-concussion symptoms in children at 1 week and 1 month following the concussion.
This was a secondary analysis of data collected prospectively in a cohort study conducted in nine pediatric emergency departments (EDs) (5P study). Participants were children ages between 5 and 17.99 years who sustained a concussion in the previous 48 hours. For the current study, only 5P participants who reported nausea and/or vomiting in the ED were eligible. The exposure of interest was ondansetron administration; the comparison group included all other participants. The primary outcome was an increase in at least three symptoms of the Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory score at 1 week and 1 month following trauma.
Among the 3,063 children included in the 5P study, 1805 (59%) reported nausea and provided data at 1 week and/or 1 month. Among them, 132 (7%) received ondansetron. Multivariable logistic regression adjusted for confounders did not show an association between ondansetron use and the risk of persistent post-concussion symptoms at 1 week (OR: 1.13 [95% CI: 0.86-1.49]), but it was associated with a higher risk at 1 month (OR: 1.33 [95% CI: 1.05-1.97]).
In children presenting to the ED with an acute concussion, ondansetron use was associated with a higher risk of persistent post-concussion symptoms at 1 month. Although this may be related to the limitations of the design, it highlights the importance of evaluating this association using a randomized clinical trial.
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a very effective technique for studying gene function and may be an efficient method for controlling pests. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS), which plays a key role in the synthesis of trehalose and insect development, was cloned in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (TcTPS) and the putative functions were studied using RNAi via the injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) corresponding to conserved TPS and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase domains. Expression analyses show that TcTPS is expressed higher in the fat body, while quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results show that the expression of four trehalase isoforms was significantly suppressed by dsTPS injection. Additionally, the expression of six chitin synthesis-related genes, such as hexokinase 2 and glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase, was suppressed at 48 and 72 h post-dsTPS-1 and dsTPS-2 RNA injection, which were two dsTPS fragments that had been designed for two different locations in TcTPS open reading frame, and that trehalose content and trehalase 1 activity decreased significantly at 72 h post-dsRNA injection. Furthermore, T. castaneum injected with dsTPS-1 and dsTPS-2 RNA displayed significantly lower levels of chitin and could not complete the molting process from larvae to pupae, revealing abnormal molting phenotypes. These results demonstrate that silencing TPS gene leads to molting deformities and high mortality rates via regulation of gene expression in the chitin biosynthetic pathway, and may be a promising approach for pest control in the future.
The effects of high-Z dopant on the laser-driven ablative Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) are investigated by theoretical analysis and radiation hydrodynamics simulations. It is found that the oscillation amplitude of ablative RMI depends on the ablation velocity, the blow-off plasma velocity and the post-shock sound speed. Owing to enhancing the radiation at the plasma corona and increasing the radiation temperature at the ablation front, the high-Z dopant in plastic target can significantly increase the ablation velocity and the blow-off plasma velocity, leading to an increase in oscillation frequency and a reduction in oscillation amplitude of the ablative RMI. The high-Z dopant in plastic target is beneficial to reduce the seed of ablative Rayleigh–Taylor instability. These results are helpful for the design of direct drive inertial confinement fusion capsules.
Although the strong coupling of polarization to spontaneous strain in ferroelectrics would impart a flux-closure with severe disclination strains, recent studies have successfully stabilized such a domain via a nano-scaled multi-layer growth. Nonetheless, the detailed distributions of polarizations in three-dimensions (3D) and how the strains inside a flux closure affect the structures of domain walls are still less understood. Here we report a 3D polarization texture of a 4-fold flux closure domain identified in tensile strained ferroelectric PbTiO3/SrTiO3 multilayer films. Ferroelectric displacement analysis based on aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopic imaging reveals highly inhomogeneous strains with strain gradient above 107/m. These giant disclination strains significantly broaden the 90° domain walls, while the flexoelectric coupling at 180° domain wall is less affected. The present observations are helpful for understanding the basics of topological dipole textures and indicate novel applications of ferroelectrics through engineering strains.
Chinese psychiatrists have gradually started to focus on those who are deemed to be at ‘clinical high-risk (CHR)’ for psychosis; however, it is still unknown how often those individuals identified as CHR from a different country background than previously studied would transition to psychosis. The objectives of this study are to examine baseline characteristics and the timing of symptom onset, help-seeking, or transition to psychosis over a 2-year period in China.
The presence of CHR was determined with the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) at the participants' first visit to the mental health services. A total of 86 (of 117) CHR participants completed the clinical follow-up of at least 2 years (73.5%). Conversion was determined using the criteria of presence of psychotic symptoms (in SIPS). Analyses examined baseline demographic and clinical predictors of psychosis and trajectory of symptoms over time. Survival analysis (Kaplan–Meier) methods along with Log-rank tests were performed to illustrate the relationship of baseline data to either conversion or non-conversion over time. Cox regression was performed to identify baseline predictors of conversion by the 2-year follow-up.
In total 25 (29.1%) of 86 completers transitioned to a psychotic disorder over the course of follow-up. Among the CHR sample, the mean time between attenuated symptom onset and professional help-seeking was about 4 months on average, and converters developed fully psychotic symptoms about 12 months after symptom onset. Compared with those CHR participants whose risk syndromes remitted over the course of the study, converters had significantly longer delays (p = 0.029) for their first visit to a professional in search of help. At baseline assessment, the conversion subgroup was younger, had poorer functioning, higher total SIPS positive symptom scores, longer duration of untreated prodromal symptoms, and were more often given psychosis-related diagnoses and subsequently prescribed antipsychotics in the clinic.
Chinese CHR identified primarily by a novel clinical screening approach had a 2-year transition rate comparable with those of specialised help-seeking samples world-wide. Early clinical intervention with this functionally deteriorating clinical population who are suffering from attenuated psychotic symptoms, is a next step in applying the CHR construct in China.
Reconstruction with a vascularised flap provides the most reliable outcome, with post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak rates of less than 5 per cent. This article aims to review and summarise the critical technical aspects of the vascularised flaps most commonly used for skull base reconstruction.
Vascularised flaps are classified as intranasal or extranasal. The intranasal group includes the Hadad–Bassagaisteguy nasoseptal flap, the Caicedo reverse nasoseptal flap, the nasoseptal rescue flap, the posteriorly or anteriorly based lateral wall flaps, and the middle turbinate flap. Extranasal flaps include the transfrontal pericranial and transpterygoid temporoparietal flaps.
The Hadad–Bassagaisteguy nasoseptal flap is overwhelmingly favoured for reconstructing extensive defects of anterior, middle and posterior cranial base. Its pertinent technical features are described. However, it is essential to master the skills required for the various extranasal or regional vascularised flaps because each can offer a reconstructive alternative for specific patients, especially when open approaches are needed and/or intranasal vascularised flaps are not feasible.
The physiological importance of the lateral tunnel stenosis in the Fontan pathway for children with single ventricle physiology can be difficult to determine. The impact of the stenosis and stent implantation on total cavopulmonary connection resistance has not been characteriszed, and there are no clear guidelines for intervention.
Methods and results
A computational framework for haemodynamic assessment of stent implantation in patients with lateral tunnel stenosis was developed. Cardiac magnetic resonances images were reconstructed to obtain total cavopulmonary connection anatomies before stent implantation. Stents with 2-mm diameter increments were virtually implanted in each patient to understand the impact of stent diameter. Numerical simulations were performed in all geometries with patient-specific flow rates. Exercise conditions were simulated by doubling and tripling the lateral tunnel flow rate. The resulting total cavopulmonary connection vascular resistances were computed. A total of six patients (age: 14.4±3.1 years) with lateral tunnel stenosis were included for preliminary analysis. The mean baseline resistance was 1.54±1.08 WU·m2 and dependent on the stenosis diameter. It was further exacerbated during exercise. It was observed that utilising a stent with a larger diameter lowered the resistance, but the resistance reduction diminished at larger diameters.
Using a computational framework to assess the severity of lateral tunnel stenosis and the haemodynamic impact of stent implantation, it was observed that stenosis in the lateral tunnel pathway was associated with higher total cavopulmonary connection resistance than unobstructed pathways, which was exacerbated during exercise. Stent implantation could reduce the resistance, but the improvement was specific to the minimum diameter.