To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To detect eating disorders and risky eating behaviour in early stages, screening tests are used. In order to examine as many adolescents as possible, these tests should be economic, i. e. as short as possible but at the same time they should fulfil the psychometric quality criteria. We compared the German version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26D) and the German version of the SCOFF test (which contains only five Yes-no questions) in a sample of 425 twelve year old girls and 382 boys from Thuringia, Germany. Although the EAT-26D reached higher psychometric properties, the SCOFF has been proved as a useful screening tool with a test-retest reliability of rtt = .73 and a maximum accuracy of 82% (area under the ROC curve). In reference to the EAT-26D (20 point cut-off) the sensitivity of the SCOFF was 78%, specificity 75%, positive predictive value 28%, and the negative predictive value, which is more relevant for screenings, was 96%. The construct validity reached r = .52.
We trained local public health workers on disaster recovery roles and responsibilities by using a novel curriculum based on a threat and efficacy framework and a training-of-trainers approach. This study used qualitative data to assess changes in perceptions of efficacy toward Hurricane Sandy recovery and willingness to participate in future disaster recoveries.
Purposive and snowball sampling were used to select trainers and trainees from participating local public health departments in jurisdictions impacted by Hurricane Sandy in October 2012. Two focus groups totaling 29 local public health workers were held in April and May of 2015. Focus group participants discussed the content and quality of the curriculum, training logistics, and their willingness to engage in future disaster recovery efforts.
The training curriculum improved participants’ understanding of and confidence in their disaster recovery work and related roles within their agencies (self-efficacy); increased their individual- and agency-level sense of role-importance in disaster recovery (response-efficacy); and enhanced their sense of their agencies’ effective functioning in disaster recovery. Participants suggested further training customization and inclusion of other recovery agencies.
Threat- and efficacy-based disaster recovery trainings show potential to increase public health workers’ sense of efficacy and willingness to participate in recovery efforts. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:615–622)
The local public health agency (LPHA) workforce is at the center of the public health emergency preparedness system and is integral to locally driven disaster recovery efforts. Throughout the disaster recovery period, LPHAs have a primary responsibility for community health and are responsible for a large number of health services. In the face of decreasing preparedness funding and increasing frequency and severity of disasters, LPHAs continue to provide essential disaster life cycle services to their communities. However, little is known about the confidence that LPHA workers have in performing disaster recovery-related duties. To date, there is no widely used instrument to measure LPHA workers’ sense of efficacy, nor is there an educational intervention designed specifically to bolster disaster recovery-phase efficacy perceptions. Here, we describe the important role of the LPHA workforce in disaster recovery and the operational- and efficacy-related research gaps inherent in today’s disaster recovery practices. We then propose a behavioral framework that can be used to examine LPHA workers’ disaster recovery perceptions and suggest a research agenda to enhance LPHA workforce disaster recovery efficacy through an evidence-informed educational intervention. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:403–408)
Here we describe large, complex trace fossils in the late Ediacaran Omkyk Member of the Zaris Formation, Nama Group, southern Namibia. The horizontal trace fossils are preserved on a number of talus blocks from a bedding plane of a cm-thick sandstone lens from a single stratigraphic horizon less than 100 m below an ash bed dated at 547.3 ± 0.7 Ma. The forms consist of overlapping U-shaped spreiten elements with parallel limbs surrounded by an outer tube. Individual U-shaped elements are 0.2 to 1 cm in diameter, the outer tube is less than 3 mm in diameter, and the forms as a whole range from 5 to 30 cm long and 3 to 10 cm wide. The specimens commonly show a change in direction and change in diameter. The morphology of these trace fossils is comparable to backfill structures, particularly specimens of Paleozoic Zoophycos from shallow water environments. Here we interpret these horizontal spreiten-burrows to record the grazing of the trace-maker on or below a textured organic surface. The identification of large late Ediacaran trace fossils is consistent with recent reports of backfilled horizontal burrows below the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary and is suggestive of the appearance of complex feeding habits prior to the Cambrian trace fossil explosion.
Although usually thought of as external environmental stressors, a significant heritable component has been reported for measures of stressful life events (SLEs) in twin studies.
We examined the variance in SLEs captured by common genetic variants from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 2578 individuals. Genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) was used to estimate the phenotypic variance tagged by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also performed a GWAS on the number of SLEs, and looked at correlations between siblings.
A significant proportion of variance in SLEs was captured by SNPs (30%, p = 0.04). When events were divided into those considered to be dependent or independent, an equal amount of variance was explained for both. This ‘heritability’ was in part confounded by personality measures of neuroticism and psychoticism. A GWAS for the total number of SLEs revealed one SNP that reached genome-wide significance (p = 4 × 10−8), although this association was not replicated in separate samples. Using available sibling data for 744 individuals, we also found a significant positive correlation of R2 = 0.08 in SLEs (p = 0.03).
These results provide independent validation from molecular data for the heritability of reporting environmental measures, and show that this heritability is in part due to both common variants and the confounding effect of personality.
The objective of the present study was to compare the performance of seven different, widely applied crop models in predicting heat and drought stress effects. The study was part of a recent suite of model inter-comparisons initiated at European level and constitutes a component that has been lacking in the analysis of sources of uncertainties in crop models used to study the impacts of climate change. There was a specific focus on the sensitivity of models for winter wheat and maize to extreme weather conditions (heat and drought) during the short but critical period of 2 weeks after the start of flowering. Two locations in Austria, representing different agro-climatic zones and soil conditions, were included in the simulations over 2 years, 2003 and 2004, exhibiting contrasting weather conditions. In addition, soil management was modified at both sites by following either ploughing or minimum tillage. Since no comprehensive field experimental data sets were available, a relative comparison of simulated grain yields and soil moisture contents under defined weather scenarios with modified temperatures and precipitation was performed for a 2-week period after flowering. The results may help to reduce the uncertainty of simulated crop yields to extreme weather conditions through better understanding of the models’ behaviour. Although the crop models considered (DSSAT, EPIC, WOFOST, AQUACROP, FASSET, HERMES and CROPSYST) mostly showed similar trends in simulated grain yields for the different weather scenarios, it was obvious that heat and drought stress caused by changes in temperature and/or precipitation for a short period of 2 weeks resulted in different grain yields simulated by different models. The present study also revealed that the models responded differently to changes in soil tillage practices, which affected soil water storage capacity.
Effective preparedness, response, and recovery from disasters require a well-planned, integrated effort with experienced professionals who can apply specialized knowledge and skills in critical situations. While some professionals are trained for this, others may lack the critical knowledge and experience needed to effectively perform under stressful disaster conditions. A set of clear, concise, and precise training standards that may be used to ensure workforce competency in such situations has been developed. The competency set has been defined by a broad and diverse set of leaders in the field and like-minded professionals through a series of Web-based surveys and expert working group meetings. The results may provide a useful starting point for delineating expected competency levels of health professionals in disaster medicine and public health.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2012;6:44–52)
Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS) carry out high time (0.01–0.1 s) resolution solar spectral investigations within the frequency range 1–2.5 GHz on a daily basis. At the moment, a new site is imposed to this facility. This site change became necessary due to both factors: the growing level of radio frequency interference (RFI) signals at actual site and requirements of rising up a new building at the BSS antenna location. We present results of RFI signals search at INPE-Cachoeira Paulista area as purpose to define a new BSS site.
We examined the sensitivity of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Boston Naming Test (BNT), and Multilingual Aphasia Examination Visual Naming subtest (MAE VN) to lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in patients who subsequently underwent anterior temporal lobectomy. For the AVLT (n = 189), left TLE patients performed more poorly than their right TLE counterparts [left TLE = 42.9 (10.6), right TLE = 47.7 (9.9); p < .002 (Cohen's d = .47)]. Although statistically significant, the CVLT group difference (n = 212) was of a smaller magnitude [left LTE = 40.7 (11.1), right TLE = 43.8 (9.9); (p < .03, Cohen's d = .29)] than the AVLT. Group differences were also present for both measures of confrontation naming ability [BNT: left LTE = 43.1 (8.9), right TLE = 48.1 (8.9); p < .001 (Cohen's d = .56); MAE VN: left TLE = 42.2, right TLE = 45.6, p = .02 (Cohen's d = .36)]. When these data were modeled in independent logistic regression analyses, the AVLT and BNT both significantly predicted side of seizure focus, although the positive likelihood ratios were modest. In the subset of 108 patients receiving both BNT and AVLT, the AVLT was the only significant predictor of seizure laterality, suggesting individual patient variability regarding whether naming or memory testing may be more sensitive to lateralized TLE. (JINS, 2008, 14, 394–400.)
South Africa is currently proclaiming a Marine Protected Area (MPA) in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of its sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands. The objectives of the MPA are to: 1) contribute to a national and global representative system of MPAs, 2) serve as a scientific reference point to inform future management, 3) contribute to the recovery of the Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides), and 4) reduce the bird bycatch of the toothfish fishery, particularly of albatrosses and petrels. This study employs systematic conservation planning methods to delineate a MPA within the EEZ that will conserve biodiversity patterns and processes within sensible management boundaries, while minimizing conflict with the legal toothfish fishery. After collating all available distributional data on species, benthic habitats and ecosystem processes, we used C-Plan software to delineate a MPA with three management zones: four IUCN Category Ia reserves (13% of EEZ); two Conservation Zones (21% of EEZ); and three Category IV reserves (remainder of EEZ). Compromises between conservation target achievement and the area required by the MPA are apparent in the final reserve design. The proposed MPA boundaries are expected to change over time as new data become available and as impacts of climate change become more evident.
We analyze the properties of quasar variability using repeated SDSS imaging data in five UV-to-far red photometric bands, accurate to 0.02 mag, for ∼13,000 spectroscopically confirmed quasars. The observed time lags span the range from 3 hours to over 3 years, and constrain the quasar variability for rest-frame time lags of up to two years, and at rest-frame wavelengths from 1000Å to 6000Å. We demonstrate that ∼66,000 SDSS measurements of magnitude differences can be described within the measurement noise by a simple function of only three free parameters. The addition of POSS data constrains the long-term behavior of quasar variability and provides evidence for a turn-over in the structure function. This turn-over indicates that the characteristic time scale for optical variability of quasars is of the order 1 year.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
Prior studies have found no adverse effects of pediatric epilepsy surgery on IQ. However, empirical techniques such as regression models, designed to account for confounding factors such as practice effects and test–retest reliability and able to provide a standardized method for evaluating outcome, have not been used in studying change after pediatric epilepsy. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the regression technique while empirically measuring the effect of epilepsy surgery on IQ in a group of pediatric patients. Predictors of retest IQ (e.g., baseline IQ, retest interval, demographics, epilepsy severity) were evaluated in a control group with intractable seizures (N = 23) assessed twice with the WISC–III. The resulting equation was used to evaluate IQ changes in a second group of children who underwent epilepsy surgery (N = 22). In controls, baseline IQ was a strong predictor of retest IQ. Number of AEDs was inversely related to retest IQ. Based on the control regression, four children (18%) in the surgical sample obtained significantly higher than expected postsurgical IQ scores and one child (5%) obtained a lower than expected IQ score. This study demonstrates that regression-based techniques yield informative estimates on outcome and may be an improvement over prior methods of measuring change after pediatric epilepsy surgery. (JINS, 2003, 9, 879–886.)
This paper describes the results of extensive performance and reliability characterization of a silicon-based surface micro-machined tunable optical filter. The device comprises a high-finesse Fabry-Perot etalon with one flat and one curved dielectric mirror. The curved mirror is mounted on an electrostatically actuated silicon nitride membrane tethered to the substrate using silicon nitride posts. A voltage applied to the membrane allows the device to be tuned by adjusting the length of the cavity. The device is coupled optically to an input and an output single mode fiber inside a hermetic package. Extensive performance characterization (over operating temperature range) was performed on the packaged device. Parameters characterized included tuning characteristics, insertion loss, filter line-width and side mode suppression ratio. Reliability testing was performed by subjecting the MEMS structure to a very large number of actuations at an elevated temperature both inside the package and on a test board. The MEMS structure was found to be extremely robust, running trillions of actuations without failures. Package level reliability testing conforming to Telcordia standards indicated that key device parameters including insertion loss, filter line-width and tuning characteristics did not change measurably over the duration of the test.
We positionally match sources observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), and the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm (FIRST) survey. Practically all 2MASS sources are matched to an SDSS source within 2 arcsec; ~11% of them are optically resolved galaxies and the rest are dominated by stars. About 1/3 of FIRST sources are matched to an SDSS source within 2 arcsec; ~80% of these are galaxies and the rest are dominated by quasars. Based on these results, we project that by the completion of these surveys the matched samples will include about 107 stars and 106 galaxies observed by both SDSS and 2MASS, and about 250,000 galaxies and 50,000 quasars observed by both SDSS and FIRST. Here we present a preliminary analysis of the optical, infrared and radio properties for the extragalactic sources from the matched samples. In particular, we find that the fraction of quasars with stellar colors missed by the SDSS spectroscopic survey is probably not larger than ~10%, and that the optical colors of radio-loud quasars are ~0.05 mag. redder (with 4σ significance) than the colors of radio-quiet quasars.
In a descriptive analysis of 158 patients
with temporal lobe epilepsy, Taylor (1969) reported that
the age of first seizure varied systematically as a function
of laterality and sex. We conducted inferential
analyses of Taylor's original data which (1) provided
support for his proposal of disproportionate left hemisphere
vulnerability to seizure onset in early life, but (2) failed
to provide evidence of sex differences in age of onset
of unilateral seizures. Examination of these effects in
a larger sample of 844 patients drawn from the Bozeman
Epilepsy Consortium provided some additional support for
findings from the inferential analysis. Specifically, the
left hemisphere appeared more vulnerable to seizure onset
in childhood, this increased vulnerability extending to
about age 5 years. Age of onset of seizures was not different
when males and females were compared. Thus, reanalysis
of Taylor's original data as well as examination of
data from a larger, more contemporary sample suggest that
seizure onset varies as a function of laterality, but not
sex. (JINS, 1997, 3, 428–434.)
The construct of nonverbal memory, as assessed
by figural reproduction tests, has recently been questioned
by a number of investigators. The purpose of this study
was to reexamine this construct and its relationship to
right temporal lobe dysfunction. Figural reproduction test
scores were examined in 757 epilepsy surgery candidates
obtained from 8 epilepsy centers participating in the Bozeman
Epilepsy Consortium. All participants exhibited unequivocal
evidence of left (LTL) or right (RTL) temporal lobe epilepsy
observed in ictal and interictal EEG recordings. All subjects
also had IQ scores exceeding 70, right-hand preference,
and left hemisphere language dominance confirmed by intracarotid
sodium amytal testing. Comparisons of LTL and RTL groups
showed no significant differences in scores on the Visual
Reproduction subtests from the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS)
or Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised (WMS–R) or
on the copy and delayed recall conditions of the Rey–Osterrieth
Complex Figure Test (ROCFT). Significant differences were
observed among centers on WMS and ROCFT scores, which are
likely to be a result of variations in administration and/or
scoring procedures. The lack of significant differences
between LTL and RTL groups in this large sample raise questions
about the nature of nonverbal memory and its relationship
to right temporal lobe dysfunction. (JINS, 1997,
Studies conducted at our Alzheimer Center in Cleveland, Ohio, along with those of other investigators, have documented that visual hallucinations occur with sufficient frequency in Alzheimer's disease and related dementias to warrant further investigation of their meaning and implications. The largest data set in which frequency of hallucinations among persons with Alzheimer's disease has been examined comes from a collaboration among the National Institute of Aging Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study (ADCS), the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD), and the Case Western Reserve University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC). As a part of this collaboration, we examined data from 556 patients with Alzheimer's disease treated at medical centers across the United States who had been rated using the CERAD Behavior Rating Scale for Dementia (BRSD). The BRSD is a comprehensive, informant-based tool that includes several questions concerning the frequency with which hallucinations and misperceptions were experienced during the month before the interview.
Epitaxial layers of GaN on c-plane sapphire are analyzed by continuous-wave and time-resolved photoluminescence at 4K and by X-ray diffraction. Besides the well-known emissions from hexagonal GaN we observe luminescence bands at 3.279 and 3.15 to 3.21 eV which are identified as the transition of the donor bound exciton and the donor-acceptor pair recombination in cubic GaN, respectively. Measurements of the luminescence decay times are essential for the clarification of the emission processes. Due to the probing depth of about 200 nm in PL we find that the fraction of cubic phase typically decreases with layer thickness. In our best samples, however, we do not detect the cubic phase at all.