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A disruption database characterizing the current quench of disruptions with ITER-like tungsten divertor has been developed on EAST. It provides a large number of plasma parameters describing the predisruptive plasma, current quench time, eddy current, and mitigation by massive impurity injection, which shows that the current quench time strongly depends on magnetic energy and post-disruption electron temperature. Further, the energy balance and magnetic energy dissipation during the current quench phase has been well analysed. Magnetic energy is also demonstrated to be dissipated mainly by ohmic reheating and inductive coupling, and both of the two channels have great effects on current quench time. Also, massive gas injection is an efficient method to speed up the current quench and increase the fraction of impurity radiation.
Flexibility is one of the important mechanical performance parameters of stent. The flexibility of tapered stents, especially self-expanding tapered stents, remains unknown. In this study, we developed a new selfexpanding tapered stent for tapered arteries and performed a numerical investigation of stent flexibility by using finite element method. The effect of stent design parameters, including taper and link space width, on stent flexibility was studied. The flexibility of the proposed stent was also compared with that of traditional cylindrical stents. Results show that the tapered stent is more flexible than the traditional cylindrical stent. Furthermore, the flexibility of the tapered stent increases with increasing stent taper and stent link space width. The increase in the stent link space width can contribute to the reduction in the peak stress. Therefore, tapered stents with high link space width will improve the stent flexibility. This work provides useful information for improvement of stent design and clinical selection.
Several questions still exist in the literature on the relationship between cumulative exposure to work-related incidents and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in First Responders (FR).
To address three unanswered questions in the field.
(1) Are different cumulative exposure scoring algorithms similarly related to PTSD?
(2) Is PTSD associated only with incidents rated as severe and traumatic?
(3) Can we identify cut-off scores of cumulative exposure that maximize sensitivity and specificity to predict PTSD?
To better characterize the relationship between cumulative exposure and PTSD in FR.
The association between exposure and PTSD was examined with logistic and linear regression and with receiver operating characteristic analysis in 349 FR.
(1) The strength of the association between PTSD and total cumulative exposure indexes varied across different scoring algorithms.
(2) Compared to total cumulative exposure indexes and to sub-scores of exposure to non-traumatic and/or less severe incidents, sub-scores indexing exposure to severe traumatic events only were more strongly and significantly associated with PTSD.
(3) The use of two cut-off scores maximizes sensitivity and specificity to predict PTSD.
(1) The relationship between current PTSD and cumulative exposure is partially dependent on the approach used to quantify exposure.
(2) Focusing on the assessment of cumulative exposure to severe traumatic events is sufficient to predict PTSD, and might be more useful and effective in research and clinical decision-making.
(3) Sensitivity and specificity of exposure scores might help improve secondary prevention (early detection and effective intervention) of individuals at risk.
Item Response Theory (IRT) allows for dimensional scaling of the severity of a disorder, and comparison of symptoms’ properties across different measures of the same trait and across groups. IRT has never been applied to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
To determine discrimination and severity parameters of PTSD symptoms measured with two instruments, and to examine gender- and age-related Differential Item Functioning (DIF) of PTSD indicators.
To inform the dimensional scaling of PTSD in youth.
IRT was applied to PTSD items measured with the DPS and the PTSD-RI in 6,733 9/11-exposed youths. DIF analysis was performed in the sample stratified by gender and age (8-13; 14-21).
DPS and PTSD-RI items are most informative at intermediate and severe levels of PTSD, respectively. Across instruments, discrimination was greatest for insomnia and nightmares, and lowest for 9/11-related thoughts. Severity parameters were highest for avoidance and numbing symptoms, and lowest for 9/11-related thoughts. The majority of PTSD symptoms showed significant DIF across subgroups.
DPS and PTSD-RI criteria are informative at different levels of PTSD severity. PTSD symptoms differentially discriminate among individuals along the PTSD continuum, and are most informative at different levels of PTSD severity. These results could inform dimensional scaling of PTSD, and allow for flexibility in assigning cut-off points for facilitating clinical decision-making. PTSD criteria do not provide the same information across subgroups defined by gender and age, suggesting that symptoms differ in the way they represent severe post-traumatic stress reactions across groups.
Silicon telluride (Si2Te3) is a silicon-based 2D chalcogenide with potential applications in optoelectronics. It has a unique crystal structure where Si atoms form Si-Si dimers to occupy the “metal” sites. In this paper, we report an ab initio computational study of its optical dielectric properties using the GW approximation and the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE). Strong in-plane optical anisotropy is discovered. The imaginary part of the dielectric constant in the direction parallel to the Si-Si dimers is found to be much lower than that perpendicular to the dimers. The optical measurement of the absorption spectra of 2D Si2Te3 nanoplates shows modulation of the absorption coefficient under 90-degree rotation, confirming the computational results. We show the optical anisotropy originates from the particular compositions of the wavefunctions in the valence and conduction bands. Because it is associated with the Si dimer orientation, the in-plane optical anisotropy can potentially be dynamically controlled by electrical field and strain, which may be useful for new device design. In addition, BSE calculations reduce GW quasiparticle band gap by 0.3 eV in bulk and 0.6 eV in monolayer, indicating a large excitonic effect in Si2Te3. Furthermore, including electron-hole interaction in bulk calculations significantly reduces the imaginary part of the dielectric constant in the out-of-plane direction, suggesting strong interlayer exciton effect in Si2Te3 multilayers.
The present study aimed to investigate whether dietary choline can regulate lipid metabolism and suppress NFκB activation and, consequently, attenuate inflammation induced by a high-fat diet in black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii). An 8-week feeding trial was conducted on fish with an initial weight of 8·16 ± 0·01 g. Five diets were formulated: control, low-fat diet (11 %); HFD, high-fat diet (17 %); and HFD supplemented with graded levels of choline (3, 6 or 12 g/kg) termed HFD + C1, HFD + C2 and HFD + C3, respectively. Dietary choline decreased lipid content in whole body and tissues. Highest TAG and cholesterol concentrations in serum and liver were recorded in fish fed the HFD. Similarly, compared with fish fed the HFD, dietary choline reduced vacuolar fat drops and ameliorated HFD-induced pathological changes in liver. Expression of genes of lipolysis pathways were up-regulated, and genes of lipogenesis down-regulated, by dietary choline compared with fish fed the HFD. Expression of nfκb and pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver and intestine was suppressed by choline supplementation, whereas expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines was promoted in fish fed choline-supplemented diets. In fish that received lipopolysaccharide to stimulate inflammatory responses, the expression of nfκb and pro-inflammatory cytokines in liver, intestine and kidney were all down-regulated by dietary choline compared with the HFD. Overall, the present study indicated that dietary choline had a lipid-lowering effect, which could protect the liver by regulating intrahepatic lipid metabolism, reducing lipid droplet accumulation and suppressing NFκB activation, consequently attenuating HFD-induced inflammation in A. schlegelii.
We show that when a solid plasma foil with a density gradient on the front surface is irradiated by an intense laser pulse at a grazing angle,
, a relativistic electron vortex is excited in the near-critical-density layer after the laser pulse depletion. The vortex structure and dynamics are studied using particle-in-cell simulations. Due to the asymmetry introduced by non-uniform background density, the vortex drifts at a constant velocity, typically
times the speed of light. The strong magnetic field inside the vortex leads to significant charge separation; in the corresponding electric field initially stationary protons can be captured and accelerated to twice the velocity of the vortex (100–200 MeV). A representative scenario – with laser intensity of
– is discussed: two-dimensional simulations suggest that a quasi-monoenergetic proton beam can be obtained with a mean energy 140 MeV and an energy spread of
. We derive an analytical estimate for the vortex velocity in terms of laser and plasma parameters, demonstrating that the maximum proton energy can be controlled by the incidence angle of the laser and the plasma density gradient.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
A new generation of high power laser facilities will provide laser pulses with extremely high powers of 10 petawatt (PW) and even 100 PW, capable of reaching intensities of
in the laser focus. These ultra-high intensities are nevertheless lower than the Schwinger intensity
at which the theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED) predicts that a large part of the energy of the laser photons will be transformed to hard Gamma-ray photons and even to matter, via electron–positron pair production. To enable the investigation of this physics at the intensities achievable with the next generation of high power laser facilities, an approach involving the interaction of two colliding PW laser pulses is being adopted. Theoretical simulations predict strong QED effects with colliding laser pulses of
focused to intensities
To examine the feasibility of using social media to assess the consumer nutrition environment by comparing sentiment expressed in Yelp reviews with information obtained from a direct observation audit instrument for grocery stores.
Trained raters used the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S) in 100 grocery stores from July 2015 to March 2016. Yelp reviews were available for sixty-nine of these stores and were retrieved in February 2017 using the Yelp Application Program Interface. A sentiment analysis was conducted to quantify the perceptions of the consumer nutrition environment in the review text. Pearson correlation coefficients (ρ) were used to compare NEMS-S scores with Yelp review text on food availability, quality, price and shopping experience.
Detroit, Michigan, USA.
Yelp reviews contained more comments about food availability and the overall shopping experience than food price and food quality. Negative sentiment about food prices in Yelp review text and the number of dollar signs on Yelp were positively correlated with observed food prices in stores (ρ=0·413 and 0·462, respectively). Stores with greater food availability were rated as more expensive on Yelp. Other aspects of the food store environment (e.g. overall quality and shopping experience) were captured only in Yelp.
While Yelp cannot replace in-person audits for collecting detailed information on the availability, quality and cost of specific food items, Yelp holds promise as a cost-effective means to gather information on the overall cost, quality and experience of food stores, which may be relevant for nutrition outcomes.
Vessel flexure can be triggered naturally by surgical operation, heart pulsation and body movement. It may affect the mechanical behavior of the stent and the existence of a stent may in turn cause vessel injury. In the present study, the finite element method is employed to study the interaction between stent and vessel during vessel flexure. Two- and four-link stents made of stainless steel 316L and magnesium alloy WE43 are considered. Results indicate that longitudinal deformation of the stent can be caused by vessel flexure, and the higher levels of stress exist in the link struts. The existence of the stent could induce significant stress concentration and straightened deformation on vessel wall in the course of vessel flexure. Stents with more links or made of harder materials show greater anti-deformation capability, thus inducing a more severe stress concentration and straightened deformation on the vessel wall. The bending direction also affects the mechanical performance of the vessel-stent system. The results obtained could provide useful information for better stent designs and clinical decisions.
Blue compact dwarf galaxies(BCDs) are galaxies undergoing violent burst of star formation in compact regions. They are often thought of being an evolutionary stage of dwarf galaxies and thus can provide a unique window to study the formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies. We selected a sample of 48 BCDs from the SDSS-IV MaNGA survey (MPL-7) and separated the starburst(SB) components from their underlying hosts with a new algorithm. Combining the structural properties of the BCDs, we further explore the physical connections between the SB components and theirs hosts.
Extensive insecticide use has led to the resistance of mosquitoes to these insecticides, posing a major barrier to mosquito control. Previous Solexa high-throughput sequencing of Culex pipiens pallens in the laboratory has revealed that the abundance of a novel microRNA (miRNA), miR-13664, was higher in a deltamethrin-sensitive (DS) strain than a deltamethrin-resistant (DR) strain. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that the miR-13664 transcript level was lower in the DR strain than in the DS strain. MiR-13664 oversupply in the DR strain increased the susceptibility of these mosquitoes to deltamethrin, whereas inhibition of miR-13664 made the DS strain more resistant to deltamethrin. Results of bioinformatic analysis, quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, luciferase assay and miR mimic/inhibitor microinjection revealed CpCYP314A1 to be a target of miR-13664. In addition, downregulation of CpCYP314A1 expression in the DR strain reduced the resistance of mosquitoes to deltamethrin. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-13664 could regulate deltamethrin resistance by interacting with CpCYP314A1, providing new insights into mosquito resistance mechanisms.
Brain tumor behavior is driven by aberrations in the genome and epigenome. Many of these changes, such as IDH mutations in diffuse low-grade glioma (DLGG), are common amongst the same class of tumour and can be incorporated into the diagnostic criteria. However, any given tumor may have other, less common genomic aberrations that are essential for its biological behavior and may inform on underlying aberrant cellular pathways, and potential therapeutic agents. Precision oncology is a genomics-based approach which profiles these alterations to better manage cancer patients and has established itself within the practice of oncology and is slowly making its way into neuro-oncology. The BC Cancer’s Personalized OncoGenomics (POG) program has profiled 16 adult tumours originating from the central nervous system using whole genome and transcriptome analysis (WGTA), for the first time, within a meaningful clinical timeframe/setting. As expected, primary genomic drivers were consistent with their respective diagnoses, though secondary drivers were found to be unique to each tumour. Although these analyses did not result in altered clinical management for these patients, primarily due to availability of drug or clinical trials, they highlight the heterogeneity of secondary drivers in cancers and provide clinicians with meaningful biological information. Lastly, the data generated by POG has highlighted the frequency and complexity of novel driver fusions which are predicted to behave similarly to canonical driver events in their respective tumours. The information available to clinicians through POG has provided paramount knowledge into the biology of each unique tumour.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a very effective technique for studying gene function and may be an efficient method for controlling pests. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS), which plays a key role in the synthesis of trehalose and insect development, was cloned in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (TcTPS) and the putative functions were studied using RNAi via the injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) corresponding to conserved TPS and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase domains. Expression analyses show that TcTPS is expressed higher in the fat body, while quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results show that the expression of four trehalase isoforms was significantly suppressed by dsTPS injection. Additionally, the expression of six chitin synthesis-related genes, such as hexokinase 2 and glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase, was suppressed at 48 and 72 h post-dsTPS-1 and dsTPS-2 RNA injection, which were two dsTPS fragments that had been designed for two different locations in TcTPS open reading frame, and that trehalose content and trehalase 1 activity decreased significantly at 72 h post-dsRNA injection. Furthermore, T. castaneum injected with dsTPS-1 and dsTPS-2 RNA displayed significantly lower levels of chitin and could not complete the molting process from larvae to pupae, revealing abnormal molting phenotypes. These results demonstrate that silencing TPS gene leads to molting deformities and high mortality rates via regulation of gene expression in the chitin biosynthetic pathway, and may be a promising approach for pest control in the future.
Epidemic surveillance is an effective means to determine the characteristics of acute diarrhoea and the benefits of disease control and prevention. The epidemiological, clinical, and aetiological data of adult (aged ⩾15 years) acute diarrhoea in a general hospital in Shanghai were collected and analysed. Out of 2430 acute diarrhoea patients, 162 subjects were sampled (sample ratio 15:1). The sampled subjects had an average age (±s.d.) of 44 ± 18 years; 142 (87·7%) had a history that indicated ingestion of contaminated food; and 40 (24·7%), 54 (33·3%), and 73 (45·1%) patients had diarrhoea that was attributed to viral, bacterial, and unknown aetiological origins respectively. Viral diarrhoea is mainly prevalent during the winter and spring months, while bacterial and diarrhoea of unknown aetiology occur mainly in the summer months. The average age of the unknown aetiology group (48 ± 19 years) was significantly older than that of the viral diarrhoea group (39 ± 16 years). The number of patients with vomiting in the viral group (30·6%) was significantly higher than that in the bacterial (17·1%) and unknown aetiology (8·2%) groups. Viral and bacterial infections are the main cause of acute diarrhoea in Shanghai. However, further effective technological means are needed to improve the surveillance, control, and prevention of acute diarrhoea.
To cope with phosphorus (P) deficiency, plants adapt root morphology to enhance inorganic P (Pi) acquisition from soil by allocating more biomass to roots, but whether the responses can be modified across gradients of P supply is not fully understood. The present study examined changes in root-length density (RLD), root-hair density (RHD) and root-hair length (RHL) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in two contrasting soils, the Rough and Barnfield soils. Wheat plants were grown for 3 weeks in thin-plate rhizotrons in two soils with additions of 0, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg P/kg soil. Contrary to published literature, as P additions increased it was observed that a concomitant increase in RHL (250 to 1054 µm in the Rough soil and 303–1075 µm in the Barnfield soil) and RHD (57 to 122/mm in the Rough soil and 56–120/mm in the Barnfield soil), while RLD generally decreased (2480–1130 cm/cm3 in the Rough soil and 1716–865 cm/cm3 in the Barnfield soil). The levels of added P that resulted in critical P concentrations in the soils enabling maximum shoot biomass production were 50 mg/kg P in the Rough soil and 100 mg/kg P in the Barnfield soil, and these additions influenced root morphological changes. Under severe P deficiency, P supply increased RHL and RHD, but RLD was decreased. Improvement in lateral root and root-hair responses in wheat at extreme P deficiency may be a worthy target for breeding more sustainable genotypes for future agroecosystems.