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Early life adversity (ELA) has been associated with inflammation and immunosenescence, as well as hyporeactivity of the HPA axis. Because the immune system and the HPA axis are tightly intertwined around the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), we examined peripheral GR functionality in the EpiPath cohort among participants who either had been exposed to ELA (separation from parents and/or institutionalization followed by adoption; n = 40) or had been reared by their biological parents (n = 72).
Expression of the strict GR target genes FKBP5 and GILZ as well as total and 1F and 1H GR transcripts were similar between groups. Furthermore, there were no differences in GR sensitivity, examined by the effects of dexamethasone on IL6 production in LPS-stimulated whole blood. Although we did not find differences in methylation at the GR 1F exon or promoter region, we identified a region of the GR 1H promoter (CpG 1-9) that showed lower methylation levels in ELA.
Our results suggest that peripheral GR signaling was unperturbed in our cohort and the observed immune phenotype does not appear to be secondary to an altered GR response to the perturbed HPA axis and glucocorticoid (GC) profile, although we are limited in our measures of GR activity and time points.
The Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Laboratory (WiPAL) is a flexible user facility designed to study a range of astrophysically relevant plasma processes as well as novel geometries that mimic astrophysical systems. A multi-cusp magnetic bucket constructed from strong samarium cobalt permanent magnets now confines a
, fully ionized, magnetic-field-free plasma in a spherical geometry. Plasma parameters of
provide an ideal testbed for a range of astrophysical experiments, including self-exciting dynamos, collisionless magnetic reconnection, jet stability, stellar winds and more. This article describes the capabilities of WiPAL, along with several experiments, in both operating and planning stages, that illustrate the range of possibilities for future users.
Policy analysis is complicated by the myriad of benefits and costs generated by the use of natural resources. This study develops three benefits that must be considered in the granting of a consumptive use permit for water filed by Adena Springs Ranch, east of Ocala, Florida. This ranch is hoping to expand into grass-fat beef; but to do so, it needs additional water for irrigation. Specifically, our analysis considers the potential gain from the ranch, the potential negative effect on existing permit holders and environmental uses of water, and the possible positive value generated by the increased surface flow for other recreational users in eastern Marion County.
Examining predictors of the outcomes of major depressive disorder (MDD) is important for clinical practice and population health. There are few population-based longitudinal studies on this topic. The objectives of this study were to (1) estimate the proportions of persistent and recurrent MDD among those with MDD over 1 year, and (2) identify demographic, socio-economic, workplace psychosocial and clinical factors associated with the outcomes.
From a population-based longitudinal study of the working population, participants with a lifetime diagnosis of MDD were selected (n=834). They were classified into two groups: those with and those without current MDD. The proportions of 1-year persistence and recurrence of MDD were estimated. MDD was assessed by the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI-Auto 2.1, by telephone.
The proportions of persistent and recurrent MDD in 1 year were 38.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 31.1–46.5] and 13.3% (95% CI 10.2–17.1) respectively. Long working hours, negative thinking and having co-morbid social phobia were predictive of persistence of MDD. Perceived work–family conflict, the severity of a major depressive episode and symptoms of depressed mood were significantly associated with the recurrence of MDD.
Clinical and psychosocial factors are important in the prognosis of MDD. The factors associated with persistence and recurrence of MDD may be different. More large longitudinal studies on this topic are needed so that clinicians may predict potential outcomes based on the clinical profile and provide interventions accordingly. They may also take clinical action to change relevant psychosocial factors to minimize the chance of persistence and/or recurrence of MDD.
A novel setup for Raman measurements under small angles of incidence during the parallel plate plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of μc-Si:H films is described. The possible influence of disturbances introduced by the setup on growing films is studied. The substrate heating by the probe beam is investigated and reduced as far as possible. It is shown that with optimized experimental parameters the influence of the in-situ measurements on a growing film can be neglected. With optimized settings, in-situ Raman measurements on the intrinsic layer of a microcrystalline silicon solar cell are carried out with a time resolution of about 40 s corresponding to 20 nm of deposited material during each measurement.
Green laser crystallization of a-Ge0.85Si0.15 films deposited using Low Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition is studied. Large grains of 8x2 μm2 size were formed using a location-controlled approach. Characterization is done using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction.
Al-rich Ti-Al alloys attracted some attention during the past years due to the possibility of their application as light-weight, high-performance materials at elevated temperatures. The effect of the addition of Nb to Al-rich Ti-Al alloys has been studied for Ti36 Al62 Nb2 by a combined approach of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques for unraveling the structure and composition at the nanoscale. Structural analyses on as-cast ternary alloys revealed the presence of h-TiAl2-, Ti3Al5- and γ-TiAl-type phases. After heat treatment, phase transformations like the replacement of the metastable h-TiAl2-type by the stable r-TiAl2-type were identified. Additionally, changes of the microstructural features like the formation of interfaces with different orientation relationships are apparent. The orientation and interfacial relationships involved are compared to those of binary Ti-Al alloys rich in Al.
The increase in energy prices between 2004 and 2007 has several potential consequences for aggregate agriculture in the U.S. We estimate the derived input demand elasticities for energy as well as capital, labor, and materials using the differential supply formulation. Given that the derived input demand for energy is inelastic, it is more price-responsive than the other inputs. The results also indicate that the U.S. aggregate agricultural supply function is responsive to energy prices.
Subjects at ‘ultra high risk’ (UHR) for developing psychosis have differences in white matter (WM) compared with healthy controls. WM integrity has not yet been investigated in UHR subjects in relation to the development of subsequent psychosis. Hence, we investigated a prospective cohort of UHR subjects comparing whole brain fractional anisotropy (FA) of those later developing psychosis (UHR-P) to those who did not (UHR-NP).
We recruited 37 subjects fulfilling UHR criteria and 10 healthy controls. Baseline 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) ratings were obtained. UHR subjects were assessed at 9, 18 and 24 months for development of frank psychosis. We compared baseline FA of UHR-P to controls and UHR-NP subjects. Furthermore, we related clinical data to MRI outcome in the patient population.
Of the 37 UHR subjects, 10 had transition to psychosis. UHR-P subjects showed significantly lower FA values than control subjects in medial frontal lobes bilaterally. UHR-P subjects had lower FA values than UHR-NP subjects, lateral to the right putamen and in the left superior temporal lobe. UHR-P subjects showed higher FA values, compared with UHR-NP, in the left medial temporal lobe. In UHR-P, positive PANSS negatively correlated to FA in the left middle temporal lobe. In the total UHR group positive PANSS negatively correlated to FA in the right superior temporal lobe.
UHR subjects who later develop psychosis have differences in WM integrity, compared with UHR subjects who do not develop psychosis and to healthy controls, in brain areas associated with schizophrenia.
The NASA Star and Exoplanet Database (NStED) is a general purpose stellar archive with the aim of providing support for NASA's planet finding and characterization goals, stellar astrophysics, and the planning of NASA and other space missions. There are two principal components of NStED: a database of (currently) 140,000 nearby stars and exoplanet-hosting stars, and an archive dedicated to high precision photometric surveys for transiting exoplanets. We present a summary of the NStED stellar database, functionality, tools, and user interface. NStED currently serves the following kinds of data for 140,000 stars (where available): coordinates, multiplicity, proper motion, parallax, spectral type, multiband photometry, radial velocity, metallicity, chromospheric and coronal activity index, and rotation velocity/period. Furthermore, the following derived quantities are given wherever possible: distance, effective temperature, mass, radius, luminosity, space motions, and physical/angular dimensions of habitable zone. Queries to NStED can be made using constraints on any combination of the above parameters. In addition, NStED provides tools to derive specific inferred quantities for the stars in the database, cross-referenced with available extra-solar planetary data for those host stars. NStED can be accessed at http://nsted.ipac.caltech.edu.
The NASA Star and Exoplanet Database (NStED) is a general purpose stellar archive with the aim of providing support for NASA's planet finding and characterization goals, stellar astrophysics, and the planning of NASA and other space missions. There are two principal components of NStED: a database of (currently) 140,000 nearby stars and exoplanet-hosting stars, and an archive dedicated to high-precision photometric surveys for transiting exoplanets. We present a summary of the latter component: the NStED Exoplanet Transit Survey Service (NStED-ETSS), along with its content, functionality, tools, and user interface. NStED-ETSS currently serves data from the TrES Survey of the Kepler Field as well as dedicated photometric surveys of four stellar clusters. NStED-ETSS aims to serve both the surveys and the broader astronomical community by archiving these data and making them available in a homogeneous format. Examples of usability of ETSS include investigation of any time-variable phenomena in data sets not studied by the original survey team, application of different techniques or algorithms for planet transit detections, combination of data from different surveys for given objects, statistical studies, etc. NStED-ETSS can be accessed at http://nsted.ipac.caltech.edu.
Commission 5 has been very active during the IAU XXVI General Assembly in Prague: the Commission, its Working Groups and its Task Force held business meetings. In addition, Commission 5 sponsored two Special Sessions: Special Session 3 on The Virtual Observatory in Action: New Science, New Technology, and Next Generation Facilities which was held for three days 17–22 August, and Special Session 6 on Astronomical Data Management, which was held on 22 August. Commission 5 also participated in the organisation of Joint Discussion 16 on Nomenclature, Precession and New Models in Fundamental Astronomy, which was held 22-23 August. The General Assembly and Commission 5 web sites provides links to detailed information about all these meetings.
The effect of process parameters on the plasma deposition of μc-Si:H solar cells is reviewed in this article. Several in situ diagnostics are presented, which can be used to study the process stability as an additional parameter in the deposition process. The diagnostics were used to investigate the stability of the substrate temperature during deposition at elevated power and the gas composition during deposition at decreased hydrogen dilution. Based on these investigations, an updated view on the role of the process parameters of plasma power, heater temperature, total gas flow rate, and hydrogen dilution is presented.
Although a considerable amount of promising experimental research has been performed on cardiopulmonary resuscitation, clinical data indicate an ongoing limited outcome in human beings. One reason for this discrepancy could be that experimental studies use healthy animals whereas most human beings undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation suffer from acute or chronic myocardial dysfunction. To overcome this problem, we sought to develop a new model of myocardial infarction, that is easy to perform in all kind of laboratories and compromises on the myocardial function significantly.
Following approval by the local authorities, 14 domestic pigs were instrumented for measurement of arterial, central venous, left atrial and left ventricular pressures. Myocardial infarction was induced in eight pigs by clipping the circumflex artery close to its origin from the left coronary artery (infarction group; n = 8). Six animals (no infarction group, n = 6) served as no-infarct controls. Following a 4-min period of cardiac arrest, internal cardiac massage was performed in these two groups, and haemodynamics were recorded during the first 30 min of reperfusion.
All animals were resuscitated successfully. Compared to the no-infarction group, the infarction group showed significantly decreased myocardial contractility, coronary perfusion pressure and cardiac index (30 min after restoration of spontaneous circulation: infarction group: 57 ± 7 and 89 ± 19 mL min−1 kg−1 in the no-infarction group; mean ± SD; P < 0.05) during reperfusion. Two animals from the infarction group (25%), but none of the animals in the no-infarction group, died during the reperfusion period.
These data demonstrate that clipping of the circumflex artery leads to a reduced myocardial performance after successful resuscitation, whereas the rate of restoration of spontaneous circulation is not reduced. Therefore, this set-up provides a reproducible model for future studies of post-resuscitation haemodynamics and treatment.