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The near-infrared reflectance spectra of Pluto and its satellites are rich with diagnostic absorption bands of ices of CH4, N2, CO, H2O, and an incompletely identified ammonia-bearing molecule. Following years of investigation of the spectra of Pluto and Charon with ground-based telescopes, NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft obtained spectral maps of these bodies and three small satellites on its passage through the system on July 14, 2015, showing the distribution of these ices, as well as a colored, non-ice component. Spectral modeling mapped the distribution of the various ices and showed their abundance and mixing details in relationship to regions of differing surface elevation, albedo, and geologic structure. Additionally, owing to their greatly different degrees of volatility, the ices of Pluto are distributed in patterns responsive to Pluto’s climatic changes on both short and long terms. The surface of Charon is dominated spectrally by H2O ice with one or more ammoniated compounds, and three of the four very small satellites show both H2O ice and the ammonia signature.
Stellarator configurations with reactor relevant energetic particle losses are constructed by simultaneously optimizing for quasisymmetry and an analytically derived metric (
), which attempts to align contours of the second adiabatic invariant,
with magnetic surfaces. Results show that with this optimization scheme it is possible to generate quasihelically symmetric equilibria on the scale of ARIES-CS which completely eliminate all collisionless alpha particle losses within normalized radius
. We show that the best performance is obtained by reducing losses at the trapped–passing boundary. Energetic particle transport can be improved even when neoclassical transport, as calculated using the metric
, is degraded. Several quasihelically symmetric equilibria with different aspect ratios are presented, all with excellent energetic particle confinement.
Flaviviruses include many viruses causing encephalitis, including West Nile encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis. Human pegivirus genotype-1 (HPgV-1) is a lesser known member of the Flaviviridae family and has been identified in human serum, cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue. Here, we describe two adult patients with fatal HPgV-1-associated encephalitis. Neuroimaging revealed multifocal lesions, initially present in the periventricular and brain stem white matter, then one year later throughout the corona radiata bilaterally with marked involvement of the brainstem and cervical spinal cord. Phylogenetic analyses of HPgV-1 showed clustering of brain-derived sequences from both patients with other human pegiviruses. In both patients, a novel 87-nucleotide deletion in the viral NS2 gene was detected. The presence of positive and negative strand HPgV-1 RNA and viral antigens in both patients indicated viral persistence and replication in the CNS. Autopsy showed lymphocyte infiltration and gliosis predominantly in white matter of the brain and brain stem but, to a lesser extent, also in grey matter. Immunofluorescence revealed HPgV-1 NS5A antigen in lymphocytes as well as in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Thus, we hypothesize that the novel deletion in the NS2 coding region may have caused HPgV-1 neuroadaptation or might represent a yet unrecognized genotype of human pegivirus.
This presentation will enable the learner to:
1.Describe the clinical and neuropathological features of fatal human pegivirus-associated encephalitis
2.Recognize the importance of molecular analysis in encephalitis cases with unknown etiology
Background: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) accounts for approximately 20% of pediatric epilepsy cases. Of those, many are considered medically intractable and require surgical interventions. In this study, we hypothesized that mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) was less common in patients who had undergone surgery for intractable pediatric TLE than in adult series. We further hypothesized that there was a radiological and pathological discordance in identifying the cause of pediatric TLE. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of pediatric patients with TLE who had undergone surgical treatments as part of the University of Alberta’s Comprehensive Epilepsy Program between 1988 and 2018. Along with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports, post-surgical pathology results and seizure outcomes were studied Results: Of the 83 pediatric patients who had undergone temporal lobe epilepsy surgery, 28% had tumors, 22% had dual pathologies, 18% had MTS, 11% had focal cortical dysplasia, and 22% had other pathologies. In addition, for 36% of these patients, discordance between their pre-surgical MRI reports and post-surgical pathology reports were found. Conclusions: This was one of the largest retrospective cohort studies of pediatric patients who had undergone surgery for intractable TLE. This study showed that tumors, and not MTS, were the most common pathology in surgical pediatric TLE.
We investigated the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) carriage in slaughterhouse workers and the association with occupational exposure to slaughter animals and products. Stool samples from 334 employees in a Dutch pig slaughterhouse were obtained. Presence of ESBL was determined by selective plating, microarray analysis, and gene sequencing. Questionnaires were used to collect personal and occupational information. The overall prevalence of ESBL carriage was 4·8% (16/334). All ESBL-producing isolates were Escherichia coli. The ESBL genes detected were blaCTX-M-1 (n = 8), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 3), blaCTX-M-27 (n = 2), blaCTX-M-24 (n = 1), blaCTX-M-55 (n = 1), and blaSHV-12 (n = 1). A higher prevalence of ESBL was seen in workers in jobs with as tasks ‘removal of lungs, heart, liver, tongue’ (33%), and ‘removal of head and spinal cord’ (25%). For further analysis, participants were divided in two groups based on potential exposure to ESBL as related to their job title. One group with an assumed higher exposure to ESBL (e.g. stable work, stabbing, dehairing, removal of organs) and another group with an assumed lower exposure to ESBL (e.g. refrigeration, packaging and expedition). In the ‘higher exposure’ group, ten out of 95 (10·5%) were carrying ESBL vs. six out of 233 (2·6%) in the ‘lower exposure’ group. Human ESBL carriage was significantly associated with job exposure in the slaughterhouse (OR 4·5, CI 1·6–12·6). Results suggest that ESBL carriage in slaughterhouse workers overall is comparable with the Dutch population. Within the slaughterhouse population a difference in carriage exists depending on their position along the slaughter line and tasks involved.
Patients with schizophrenia might benefit from exercise via multiple ways. It can be assumed that positive effects observed in healthy people counteract different pathological dimensions of schizophrenia or add to a better compensation. E.g. exercise may serve as a coping strategy, produces changes in brain structure and function and is already known to improve mood and cardiovascular health. First studies have shown beneficial effects of exercise in schizophrenia. These studies feature a multitude of exercise types and diagnostic tests and also lay emphasis on different research questions.
From the diverse information of the studies, heterogenic character conclusions for future therapy and research can be derived. From the point of view of sports science, feasibility and effectiveness of endurance training will be discussed on the basis of current literature and results from our own research. In a controlled trial 22 patients with schizophrenia participated in 12 weeks of endurance training using bicycle ergometers resulting, e. g., in improvements of endurance capacity and functioning. A special focus was laid on analyzing the differences between the adaptations of patients and healthy controls to test the transferability of methods and effects of endurance training. The exercise intervention was feasible and effective for both healthy controls and patients but some interesting differences could be found.
Additionally, ideas and special circumstances regarding the implementation of endurance training in clinical settings or for outpatients will be considered. From the current knowledge it can be concluded, that the implementation of endurance training in multimodal therapy strategies can be recommended to promote recovery.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The aim of this study was to detect longitudinal differences in white matter brain structures in adults with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls.
Twenty adult patients with multi-episode schizophrenia under stable antipsychotic medication and twenty-two age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were included in the study. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was applied at baseline (t1), after 6weeks (t2) and after 3months (t3) and data processing was done with tract-based spatial statistics (p<0.05, corrected). Two subjects in the schizophrenic sample dropped out at t2 and one healthy subject at t3. Clinical and neuropsychological variables were measured and correlated with the most significant DTI findings.
Compared with healthy age- and sex-matched controls schizophrenic patients showed widespread decreases in mean fractional anisotropy values (p<0.05, corrected). The most obvious FA decrease in the long-term was found in the anterior part of the corpus callosum (p<0.005, corrected), the left temporal lobe (p<0.004, corr.) and the mid-cingulate gyrus bilateral (p<0.004, corr.). Correlations to demographic variables, clinical rating scales (PANSS, CGI and GAF), verbal learning and memory and working memory will be presented.
Magnetic resonance imaging was able to detect altered structural connectivity in patients with multi-episode schizophrenia in a longitudinal design.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of butaphosphan and cyanocobalamin (BTPC) supplementation on plasma metabolites and milk production in postpartum dairy cows. A total of fifty-two Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive either: (1) 10 ml of saline (NaCl 0.9%, control group); (2) 1000 mg of butaphosphan and 0.5 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC1 group); and (3) 2000 mg of butaphosphan and 1.0 mg of cyanocobalamin (BTPC2 group). All cows received injections every 5 days from calving to 20 days in milk (DIM). Blood samples were collected every 15 days from calving until 75 DIM to determine serum concentration of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, urea, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), aminotransferase aspartate (AST) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT). The body condition score (BCS) and milk production were evaluated from calving until 90 DIM. Increasing doses of BTPC caused a linear reduction in plasma concentrations of NEFA and cholesterol. Supplementation of BTPC also reduced concentrations of BHB but it did not differ between the two treatment doses. Milk yield and milk protein had a linear increase with increasing doses of BTPC. A quadratic effect was detected for milk fat and total milk solids according to treatment dose, and BTPC1 had the lowest mean values. Concentrations of glucose, urea, P, Mg, AST, GGT, milk lactose and BCS were not affected by treatment. These results indicate that injections of BTPC during the early postpartum period can reduce NEFA and BHB concentrations and increase milk production in Holstein cows.
Inclusion compounds made of a water ice network, clathrate hydrates, are investigated by
infrared spectroscopy. Because they can trap important “guest” volatiles species, they may
influence the equilibrium, exchange and flux of volatiles in many bodies of the solar
system. Their spectroscopic behaviour at low temperature (10–200 K) are shown and the
search for their signatures by comparison to solar system objects remote spectra are
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prepartum somatotropin injection in late-pregnant Holstein heifers on metabolism, milk production and resumption of postpartum ovulation. For this study, 31 late-pregnant Holstein heifers were used. The heifers were assigned randomly into two treatments: (1) 500 mg sc injections of somatotropin (somatotropin treatment, n = 15) at −35 and −21 days, and, if pertinent, at −7 days from expected calving date and (2) no treatment (control group, n = 16). Blood samples were collected weekly from −5 to 7 weeks after calving. Heifers with progesterone concentrations in plasma above 1 ng/ml in two consecutive postpartum samples were considered as having resumed ovarian activity. A higher proportion (P = 0.04) of heifers treated with somatotropin resumed ovarian activity in the first 7 weeks post partum (73.3%; 11/15) compared with the control group (37.5%; 6/16). A higher number (P = 0.02) of heifers in the somatotropin treatment group also ovulated during the first postpartum follicular wave (53.3%; 8/15) compared with the control group (12.5%; 2/16), as indicated by the number of heifers ovulating in the first 3 weeks post partum. Pregnancy rate was not affected by treatments (P > 0.10) and averaged 40.0% (6/15) in somatotropin-treated and 25.0% (4/16) in control heifers when evaluated up to 150 days in milk. Somatotropin treatment increased the average daily milk production by 2.8 kg/cow per day (P < 0.0001) and reduced the somatic cell count (P = 0.009). Plasma IGF-I was higher (P < 0.05) for somatotropin-treated heifers in the prepartum period. Insulin and body condition score were higher (P < 0.05) and non-esterified fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) for somatotropin-treated cows in the early postpartum period. In conclusion, somatotropin injection during the prepartum period in late-pregnant Holstein heifers was able to increase the proportion of heifers resuming ovarian activity early post partum, inspite of higher milk production.
Although the reliable and valid Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI–C) and Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) are useful for identifying adults at risk of developing acute and chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), they have not been validated in school-aged children and their predictive values remain unknown in this population. This study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the children versions of these two measures (PDI-C and PDEQ-C) in a sample of French-speaking school-children.
One-hundred and thirty-three consecutive victims of road traffic accidents, aged 8–15 years, were recruited into this longitudinal study via the emergency room. The peritraumatic reactions were assessed at baseline and PTSD symptoms were assessed 1 month later.
Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.8 and 0.77 for the PDI-C and PDEQ-C, respectively. The 1-month test-retest correlation coefficient (n = 33) was 0.77 for both measures. The PDI-C demonstrated a two-factor structure while the PDEQ-C displayed a one-factor structure. As with adults, the two measures were intercorrelated (r = 0.52) and correlated with subsequent PTSD symptoms and diagnosis (r = 0.21–0.56; P < 0.05).
The children versions of the PDI and PDEQ are reliable and valid in children.
Although the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI) and Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) are both useful for identifying adults at risk of developing acute and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), they have not been validated in school-aged children. The present study aims at assessing the psychometric properties of the PDI and PDEQ in a sample of French-speaking school children.
One-hundred and thirty-three school-aged victims of road traffic accidents were consecutively enrolled into this study via the emergency room. Mean(SD) age was 11.7(2.2) and 56.4% (n=75) of them were of male gender. The 13-item self-report PDI (range 0-52) and the 10-item self report PDEQ (range 10-50) were assessed within one week of the accident. Symptoms of PTSD were assessed 1 and 6 months later using the 20-item self-report Child Post-Traumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPTS-RI) (range 0-80).
Mean(SD) PDI and PDEQ scores were 19.1(10.1) and 21.1(7.6), respectively, while mean(SD) CPTS-RI scores at 1- and 6-months were 22.6(12.4) and 20.6(13.5), respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.8 and 0.77 for the PDI and PDEQ, respectively. The 1-month test-retest correlation coefficient (n=33) was 0.77 for both measures. The PDI demonstrated a 2-factor structure while the PDEQ displayed a 1-factor structure. As with adults, the two measures were inter-correlated (r=0.52) and correlated with subsequent PTSD symptoms (r=0.21−0.56; p< 0.05).
The PDI and PDEQ are reliable and valid in school-aged children, and predict PTSD symptoms.
The simplistic portrayal of road development as a classic environment versus development debate may be because the indirect pathways connecting road building with environmental change are poorly understood. Recent road development in previously remote regions of Nicaragua provides an opportunity to investigate these pathways. This paper examines the effects of increased market access on household resource use on the Atlantic coast of Nicaragua. Specifically, it looks at shifting market flow and price changes for natural resources and corresponding fishing and farming decisions in communities with varying degrees of market access before and after road completion. Fisheries markets were more responsive to market access increases than agricultural markets. With increased access, fishers increasingly sold to non-local buyers, overall export of fisheries' products increased and markets for new products emerged. Prices of fisheries goods were higher with proximity to markets and availability of non-local export outlets, and prices for some were more stable after the road was completed. There were no observed changes in household fishing and farming investments during the year-long study, and therefore the environmental implications of increased market access remain uncertain. Longer-term studies and additional biological monitoring are needed to determine the full environmental consequences of market access.
We present a study of the radial velocity offsets between AGN-related narrow emission lines and host-galaxy emission and absorption lines in Seyfert galaxies with observed redshifts less than 0.043. We find that 35% of the Seyferts in the sample show [O iii] emission lines with blueshifts with respect to their host galaxies exceeding 50 km s−1, whereas only 6% show redshifts this large, in qualitative agreement with most previous studies. We also find that a greater percentage of Seyfert 1 galaxies show blueshifts than Seyfert 2 galaxies. Using HST/STIS spatially-resolved spectra of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 and the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151, we generate geometric models of their narrow-line regions (NLRs) and inner galactic disks and show how these models can explain the blueshifted [O iii] emission lines in collapsed STIS spectra of these two Seyferts. We conclude that the combination of mass outflow of ionized gas in the NLR and extinction by dust in the inner disk (primarily in the form of dust spirals) is primarily responsible for the velocity offsets in Seyfert galaxies.
In HST/STIS optical spectra of Seyfert galaxies, there is often a bright knot of [O iii] emission in the inner NLR. In the case of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151, we have shown that the emission-line gas may be associated with the mass outflow detected in absorption in UV spectra, which suggests that we are probing regions close to the AGN. Here we present results for the luminous Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 573. The spectra reveal the presence of lines from a wide range of ionization states (see Figure 1), which is indicative of the heterogeneous nature of the emission-line gas. As in our studies of other Seyfert galaxies, including NGC 1068, NGC 4151, and Mrk 3, there is evidence for emission from low-ionization gas outside the nominal emission-line bicone. Finally, based on photoionization modeling, we find that the central emission-line knot in Mrk 573 is some tens of parsecs from the AGN, similar to other Seyfert 2 galaxies, which suggests that the material that is obscuring the central AGN in Seyfert 2s must have a similar radial extent.
The physical behaviour of methane and carbon dioxide clathrate hydrates, specific crystallographic ice crystals are of major importance for the earth and may control the stability of gases in many astrophysical bodies such as the planets, comets and possibly interstellar grains. Such models claim they provide an alternative trapping mechanism modifying the absolute and relative composition of icy bodies and can be at the source of late time injection of gaseous species in planetary atmospheres. However, there is a clear need to detect them directly. We provide in this study the laboratory recorded signatures of clathrate hydrates in the near to mid-infrared for astrophysical remote detection. These laboratory experiments will in a near future allow to follow the kinetic formation by diffusion in dedicated experiments, another important step to implement, to understand and model their possible presence in space.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by pervasive instability in moods, interpersonal relationships, self-image, and behavior. This disorder is associated with a significant rate of suicide attempts and completed suicides (4 to 10%), a major impairment in social functioning and an increased healthcare utilization cost. Treatments available include psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Research has shown some efficacy of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on post-traumatic stress disorder and mood disorder which both share common biological or clinical features with BPD. It is then likely that rTMS might prove efficient on BPD symptoms.
A review of the literature on neuroimaging and neuropsychology of BPD shows a hypoactivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex which may be a potential target site for rTMS.
We will conduct a pilot randomized sham-controlled trial on 30 BPD patients assessing the efficacy of a 10-day course of daily rTMS on neuropsychological tasks, BPD symptoms severity, risk taking behaviour, depression and general psychopathology.